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____ is the number of osmoles of solution per kg of water
_____ is the number of osmoles per L of sulution
how many osmoles in 1 mole of dissolved particles
1)what are most clinical calculations based on, osmolarity or osmolality
2) what units are most concentrations expressed in?
- 1) osmolarity
- 2)milliosmoles per liter
_____ is the ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume and pressure in a cell
____ cells have a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than ICF, causing it to swell.
a____cell has higher concentrations of nonpermeating solutes than ICF, causing it to lose water and shrivel
____ cells have the same concentration of nonpermeating solutes as icf, causing no change in cell volume or shape
______ allows solute to bind to a carrier in the plasma membrane, which then changes shape and releases the solute to the other side
3 kinds of carriers/carrier mediated transports
- 1) uniport: carries 1 type of solute
- 2) contransport: moving 2 or more in same direction.
- 3) countertransport: move 2 or more in oposite directions w/carrier protein ANTIPORT.
3 mechanisms carrier use
- 1) facilitated diffusion
- 2) primary active transport
- 3) secondary active transport
_____ is a mechanism carriers use to trasnport solutes through membrane down it's concentration gradient. No energy expenditure required.
____ is a mechanism carriers use to move substance through membrane up concentration gradient using APT energy
primary active transport
____ is a mechanism carriers use to transport substances through the membrane requiring energy, but depends indirectly on ATP.
secondary active transport
name 4 functions of the NA+K- pump
- 1) secondary active transport: Na+ concentration across membrane.
- 2) regulates cell volume
- 3) maintenance of a membrane potential
- 4) heat production.
how do vascular transports move molecules into a cell?
how do vesicles transport molecules out of a cell
list 3 forms of endocytosis
- 1) phagocytosis
- 2) pinocytosis
- 3) receptor-mediated endocytosis
- Phagocytosis: eating cells
- Pintocytosis: cell drinking in ECF
- recepter-mediated endoctosis: receptors create clathrin-coated vesicles
A_____ is a system of protein microfilaments, intermediated filaments, and microtubules in a cell, serving in physical support, cellular movement, and the routing of molecules and organelles to their destinations within the cell
______are made of the protein actin. They form a fibrous mat called a terminal web on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane.
____ are stiffer and thicker than microfilaments, are made of keratin, and strengthen our hair and nails
____ are made of protofilaments, which consist of long strands of tubulin
_____ are internal structures of a cell that carry out specialized metabolic tasks.`