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Consumer behavior is based on how consumers... (MU)
- 1. Make purchase decisions
- 2. Use and dispose of products
A five-step process used by consumers when buying goods or services.
Consumer decision-making process
5 steps of the consumer decision-making process. (NIEPP)
- 1. Need recognition
- 2. Information search
- 3. Evaluation of alternatives
- 4. Purchase
- 5. Post-purchase behavior
Result of an imbalance between actual and desired states.
The first stage in the decision-making process.
Any unit of input affecting one or more of the five senses.
... helps consumers recognize an imbalance between present status and preferred state.
An excellent way to understand needs is to view them as... or...
job statements, outcome statements.
Recalling information in memory is part of the... search.
Seeking information in outside environment is part of the... search.
2 types of external information searches. (NM)
- 1. Nonmarketing-controlled
- 2. Marketing-controlled
Group of brands, resulting from an information search, from which a buyer can choose.
3 steps in evaluating alternatives and purchases. (ACR)
- 1. Analyze attributes
- 2. Cutoff criteria
- 3. Rank attributes
Inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions.
Consumers can reduce dissonance by... (SAR)
- 1. Seeking info that reinforces optimism
- 2. Avoiding information that causes doubt
- 3. Returning the product
Marketing can minimize dissonance through effective...
communication with purchasers.
The amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search,evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior.
4 parts of limited decision making. (LLES)
- 1. Low levels of involvement
- 2. Low to moderate cost goods
- 3. Evaluation of a few alternative brands
- 4. Short to moderate time to decide
5 parts of extensive decision making. (HHELM)
- 1. High levels of involvement
- 2. High cost goods
- 3. Evaluation of many brands
- 4. Long time to decide
- 5. May experience cognitive dissonance
4 factors Determining the Level of Consumer Involvement. (PIPS)
- 1. Previous experience
- 2. Interest
- 3. Perceived risk of negative consequences
- 4. Social visibility
6 Components of culture. (LMVCRL)
- 1. Language
- 2. Myths
- 3. Values
- 4. Customs
- 5. Rituals
- 6. Laws
Culture is... (DPFL)
- 1. Dynamic
- 2. Pervasive
- 3. Functional
- 4. Learned
An enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct.
A homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as cultural elements unique to their own group.
A group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem,who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms.
5 social class measurements. (OIEWO)
- 1. Occupation
- 2. Income
- 3. Education
- 4. Wealth
- 5. Other variables
2 impacts of social class on marketing. (IH)
- 1. Indicates which medium to use for advertising
- 2. Helps determine the best distribution for products
3 social influences. (ROF)
- 1. Reference groups
- 2. Opinion leaders
- 3. Family members
3 influences of reference groups. (SAN)
- 1. They serve as information sources and influence perceptions.
- 2. They affect an individual’s aspiration levels.
- 3. Their norms either constrain or stimulate consumer behavior.
The first to try new products and services out of pure curiosity.
Opinion leaders may be challenging to...
Marketers are increasingly using social media to determine and attract...
... differences between men and women result in different needs, such as health and beauty products.
Trends in gender marketing are influenced by the... in society.
changing roles of men and women.
Consumer tastes in food, clothing, cars, furniture, and recreation are often...-related
Marketers define target markets according to... such as “young singles” and “young married with children.”
life cycle stages
Personality combines... and...
psychological makeup, environmental forces
Human behavior depends largely on...
Self-concept combines... and...
ideal self-image, real self-image.
When a consumer notices certainstimuli and ignores others.
When a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with feelings or beliefs.
When a consumer remembers only that information that supports personal beliefs.
Type of learning when an experience changes behavior.
Type of learning that is not through direct experience.
An organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world.
A learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object.
The marketing of goods and services to individuals and organizations for purposes other than personal consumption.
The key in business products is...
The use of the Internet to facilitate the exchange of goods, services, and information between organizations.
B-to-B electronic commerce
B-to-B marketers are behind their B-to-C counterparts in...
social media adoption