Cattle- Adult Diarrhea

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Cattle- Adult Diarrhea
2015-09-28 12:44:24
vetmed cattle

vetmed cattle
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  1. BVDv is caused by ________ of the __________ family; it is a(n) ____________ virus.
    pestivirus; Flaviviridae; immunosuppresive
  2. Modes of transmission of BVDv. (4)
    shed in bodily fluids, semen, (maybe) biting insects, iatrogeneically
  3. What are the 6 clinical syndromes associated with BVDv?
    persistent infection, immunosuppression and respiratory disease, acute BVD, mucosal disease, reproductive problems, thrombocytopenia/bleeders
  4. Clinical signs of acute BVDv are usually seen in cattle _________ old.
  5. What are clinical signs of acute BVDv? (5)
    fever, depression, diarrhea, oral/esophageal/abomasal ulcers, lameness/coronary ulcers (less common)
  6. Cattle develop persistent BVDv viremia when...
    infected in utero at around 120 days gestation (immunotolerance to ncp strain)
  7. Clinical signs associated with PI BVDv develop with either... (2)
    exposure to cp strain or mutation of the ncp strain to a cp strain (mucosal disease).
  8. Mucosal disease associated with BVDv occurs when...
    an ncp strain is mutated to a cp strain.
  9. Clinical signs of mucosal disease associated with BVDv. (5)
    explosive diarrhea, GI ulceration and necrosis of Peyer's patches, erosion of muzzle and oral cavity, mortality 100%
  10. Describe reproductive problems associated with BVDv. (2)
    abortion, congenital defects
  11. Infection during the ________ can lead to the following congenital defects... (4)
    middle trimester; cerebellar hypoplasia, micro-ophthalmia, cataracts, retinopathy with pigmentation
  12. Type II BVDv is associated with ___________, which is seen in __(2)__.
    thrombocytopenia; cows and calves
  13. Grossly, where do you examine for BVDv pathology? (5)
    palate/gums/under tongue, linear erosions in esophagus, abomasal/ruminal ulcers, Peyer's patch necrosis, pneumonia common secondarily
  14. How do you diagnose BVDv? (3)
    antigen capture ELISA on blood or tissue, immunohistochemistry of tissue, serology on 2 samples 14 days apart
  15. BVDv vaccines are either ________, which is administered twice initially then boostered annually, or _________, which produce superior immunity from a single injection.
    killed; modified live
  16. What is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease?
    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
  17. Describe Johne's dz transmission. (2)
    bacteria in feces of adults contaminate calf's environment, macrophages in milk and colostrum
  18. Johne's organisms are absorbed in the GI and distribute to the _________, where they slowly multiply; eventually, organisms make their way to the __________.
    intestinal LNs; ileo-cecal junction
  19. Johne's organisms colonize the __________, which enables it to move to the __(2)__ of cattle and the __(2)__ of small ruminants.
    ileocecal LNs; distal ileum and colon; jejunum and ileum
  20. Infection with Johne's bacillus causes a __________ reaction in the intestinal wall, causing... (2)
    granulomatous; poor absorption of water, leakage of vascular proteins into the gut lumen.
  21. Johne's causes infection primarily in the _________ in cattle and the __________ in small ruminants.
    large intestine; small intestine
  22. To minimize Johne's disease in the herd, it is recommended that you...
    eliminate all offspring of infected dams.
  23. Clinical signs of Johne's disease. (5)
    >2 years old and normal appetite, chronic wasting diarrhea, hypoproteinemia, submandibular edema
  24. How do you diagnose Johne's disease? (4)
    fecal culture with specialized mycobactin J media, serologic tests, DNA probe of feces, histopath
  25. Fecal positive for Johne's is ___________; ELISA positive for Johne's is ___________.
    definite +; dependent upon prevalence in herd
  26. How do you prevent Johne's in a herd? (5)
    don't spread manure on fields to be pastures, don't buy animals from unknown herds, vaccinate in high prevalence herds, eliminate all positive animals, strict sanitation with neonates
  27. Vaccination for Johne's is only practiced on __________ and with approval of __________.
    infected herds; State vet
  28. What is the etiologic agent for winter dysentery?
  29. Incubation for winter dysentery is __________; outbreaks run through the herd in about __________.
    a few days; 3 weeks
  30. What are clinical signs of winter dysentery? (4)
    explosive diarrhea +/- hemorrhage, normal TPR, normal appetite, down milk
  31. Winter dysentery lasts about _________; clinical signs are more severe in __________.
    3-5 days; older cows
  32. Transmission of winter dysentery is...
    fecal-oral (poss respiratory secretions)
  33. What is treatment for winter dysentery?
  34. The etiologic agent of Ostertagia type II is __________, which resides in the ___________; it is a pathogenic ____________.
    previously arrested larvae of Ostertagi ostertagi; abomasal wall; strongyle
  35. Ostertagia type II is acquired though _________.
  36. Clinical signs of Ostertagia type II. (3)
    [in winter] watery diarrhea, bottle jaw (hypoproteinemia), normal TPR
  37. When diagnosing Ostertagia, __________ will initially be negative because...
    McMaster's fecal; larvae are emerging and you need adults for eggs in stool.
  38. With ostertagia infection, there is a(n) _________ abomasal pH; this causes an increase in _________.
    increase; plasma pepsinogen (by inhibiting conversion to pepsin)
  39. How do you treat/prevent Ostertagia?
    anthelmintics (ivermec, albendazole, etc.)
  40. Pathologically, how does Ostertagia type II appear? (2)
    moroccan leather appearance to abomasal folds, +/- adult worms in abomasal contents
  41. Etiologic agent of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle/bison is ___________; in farmed deer/cervids is ___________.
    ovine herpesvirus 2; caprine herpesvirus 2
  42. Describe transmission of malignant catarrhal fever.
    aerosols/direct contact with sheep <1 year of age
  43. Clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever. (6)
    death (high mortality, low morbidity), diarrhea, catarrhal nasal exudate, ocular d/c, lymphadenopathy, pneumonia
  44. How do you diagnose malignant catarrhal fever? (3)
    clinical signs, histopath (GI ulcerations, lymphoid panarteritis), Colorado State Diagnostic Lab PCR
  45. What are the 3 pathogenic Salmonella strains in cattle?
    S. typhimurium, S. dublin, S. newport (emerging)
  46. Clinical signs of Salmonellosis in adult cattle. (5)
    diarrhea, inappetence, abortions, down milk, +/- fever