immunology 1

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immunology 1
2015-09-27 14:04:25

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  1. What is immunity
    • immunity: the body's ability to fight infection and or foriegn invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells
    • immune system: the system in the body is responsible for maintaining homeostatis by recognizing harmful from non harmful organisms producing an approriate response
  2. what are antigens, pathogens and antibodies
    • antigen: any subs that stimulate and immune response. substances such as proteins and polysaccharides, that illicits an immune response
    • - these are the trouble makers
    • - ex ragweed
    • - common antigens include allergens and molecules from digested pathogens
    • pathogens: are biological agents that cause illness, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and protozoa
    • antibodies: also immunoglobulin. Y-shape proteins which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens. they are produced by immune system (b-cells) in response to the presence of an antigen
    • - body learns to fight better and stronger
  3. Organ systems
    • upper lymph nodes: uri, sinus infection,
    • middle lymph: beast cancers
    • lower limbs in groin area lymphs: drains the lower half
  4. Bone marrow
    • WBC, rbc, lymphocytes of the immune system are originally from bone marrow
    • two types of lymphocytes: b- cells, t-cells
  5. look in text book about organs that help with immune system table 2
  6. types of immunity/response
    • nonspecific immunity
    • - 1st line of defense
    • - 2nd line of defense
    • - 3rd line of defense
    • specific immunity (station in body waiting to be called)
    • - humoral immune system/B lymphocytes
    • - cell-mediated immune system
  7. non-specific/innate immune response
    • born with it
    • 1st line of defense/immediate
    • anatomical features/protective barriers
    • functions without exposure to antibody
    • no immunological memory
    • different ways of defense
  8. non-specific immunity
    1st line defensive barriers
  9. 1. physical: skin, protects and secretes sweats (acidy in sweat can kill)
    • 2. chemical/mechanical: mucous membrane, respiratory tract, gi tract
    • - bring in dust the cillary helps to get rid of junk
  10. second line of defense non specific
    • when it gets inside of the body
    • moving more blood the area (production of platelets so it could clot and body doesn't loss alot blood)
    • Mast cell is secreted- released causing vasodilation (to bring more blood to the area) and vasoconstriction (depending on far it goes
    • then after the neutrophils are released and goes to the sites to take care of bacteria- doesn't do much
    • then the macrophage is release- it engulfs more bacteria
    • cytokines then come: gets more soliders to the site to fight what is in the body
  11. cytokines
    • are 'communication molecules' that regulate the immune response and inflammation
    • ex
    • interleukin
    • interferon
    • corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)
    • cachectin
  12. Third line of defense
    the immune response
    • some major players
    • phagocytes including macrophages and dendrits cells
    • - sample surroundings for pathogens
    • - digest invaders and present antigen
    • - used cytokines to signal t- cells and b- cells
    • lymphocytes, including t cell and b cells
    • - t cells- helper t cells, cytotoxic or killer t cells, memory t cell
    • - b cells: plasma cells and memory b cells
  13. Antigen specific immunity
    • the immune system also generates specific response to specific invaders
    • these are the ones that stay in place
    • lymphocytes:
    • - t cell (cellular)
    • - b cell (humoral)
  14. cellular immunity vs. humoral immunty
    • cellular:
    • - carried out by the t-cells
    • - helper t cells release cytokines and signal b-cells and killer t-cells
    • - killer t cell destroy infected cells
    • Humoral
    • - carried out by b-cell
    • - antibodies are produced and dumped into blood stream
    • - antibodies bind to antigens and neutralize pathogens, marking them for destruction
  15. t cells
    specific immunity, 1st line of defense
    • do not recognize free floating antigens
    • t cells learn 'self' from 'non self'
    • only recognize antigen bound to cell membrane protein
    • macrophage- antigen presenting cell
    • interaction of macrophages and t heler cell leads to interleukin 1&2
    • interleukin 2 causes proliferation of certain cytotoxix t cells and b cells
    • the immune response at this point follows two parts: one using cytotoxic t cells and the other b cell
  16. types of t cells
    • t cells are activated by antigen presenting cells, macrophages
    • - helper t cell (cd4) cd4 receptors is the receptor that HIV attaches to enter t cell
    • - cytotoxic t cell (killer t cell) attack antigen directly by altering the cell membrane
    • (body continous to fight)
    • - suppresor t cell (cd8) ability to dec b cell production, thereby keeping the immune response at a level that is compatible with health
    • (calms body down)
  17. FACTS
    • elderly have less t cells therefore they are more suspectable to infection
    • females have more t cells but less supressor t cells- more hypesentativity reactions/diseases
    • (they have more allergy)
  18. B cells specific immunity, 2nd line of defense
    • antibodies are embedded in the plasma membrane of the b cell
    • an antigen presenting cell and a helper t cell are required for activation
    • after activation:
    • - some b cell become antibody- producing factories that bind to antigen mark them for destruction
    • - some b cell turn to memory b cell. 2dary immune response making it easy to fight same infection in the future
  19. plasma B cells
    • IgG
    • IgM
    • IgA
    • IgE- allergy
    • IgD
  20. Complement system
    • made up of 25 proteins made in liver and activated when antibody connects with its antigen
    • - domino casacade
    • - puncture hole in bacteria, incr permability, make cell more susceptible to phagocytosis
    • - end result: bacteria cell dies, s/s of inflammation
  21. Lets put it together
    • IF microbes are able to pass thru the 1st and 2nd lines of defense the first cell they encounter are the phagocytes
    • macrophages and dendrites cells activate helper t cells
    • helper t's activate killer t cells and b cells
  22. helper t cells activate b cells
    • the antibody receptors on the b cell bind to the matching antigen on the surface of pathogen
    • an activated helper t cell binds to th antibody-antigen complex and releases cytokines
    • the b cell matures to a plasma cell and releases antibodies
  23. pathogens are neutralized and marked for destruction
  24. memory cells remain in circulation
    • the immune system produces memory b cells and memory t cells
    • these memory cells are able to launch the immune response before any symptoms are felt