Block VIIA

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Block VIIA
2015-10-27 22:03:10
Block VIIA

Block VIIA
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  1. Canine TPR
    • T - 100.5-102.5
    • P - 70-160
    • R - 16-28
  2. Feline TPR
    • T - 100.5-102.5
    • P - 140-210
    • R - 20-28
  3. Bovine TPR
    • T - 100.4-102.5
    • P - 60-84
    • R - 12-32
  4. Equine TPR
    • T - 99-101.5
    • P - 28-46
    • R - 8-16
  5. How to age cattle
    • by teeth
    • 8 deciduous mandibular incisors by 1 month
    • 1-2 permanent central incisors are 2 years
    • 3-4 permanent incisors are 2-3 years old
    • 5-6 permanent is 3 years old
    • 8 permanent incisors (canines) are 4 years old
  6. how to age a horse
    • Deciduous incisors erupt at 8 days, 8 weeks, 8 months
    • permanent teeth erupt at 3 years, 4 years, 5 years.
  7. adult female goat
    doe or nanny
  8. adult female sheep
  9. adult intact male goat
    buck or billy
  10. adult intact male sheep
    ram or buck
  11. castrated male goat
  12. castrated male sheep
  13. young female goat
    doeling or doe kid
  14. young female sheep
    ewe lamb
  15. docking
    cutting off a sheep's tail, usually before 3 weeks of age.  Almost universally performed to prevent fly strike at the perineum
  16. disbudding
    removing a goat's horn buds at about 1 week of age (required for safety and registration of dairy goats)
  17. chevon
    goat meat
  18. lamb meat
    meat from a young sheep
  19. mutton
    meat from a mature sheep, usually after about 14 months of age
  20. Poll
    part between a horse's ears
  21. fetlock
    bump above hoof of horse
  22. cannon bone
    lower long bone of equine foreleg
  23. pastern
    part of a horse leg between hoof and fetlock
  24. croup
    top of horse rump behind points
  25. young male or female bovine
  26. young male bovine
    bull calf
  27. young female bovine, not yet bred
  28. young female bovine bred for the first time
    first calf heifer
  29. adult female bovine over 2 years of age
  30. castrated male bovine
    steer or ox
  31. intact male bovine
  32. casting
    technique to force cattle to lie down so that restraint can be maintained in dorsal or lateral recumbency
  33. California mastitis test
    • cow-side test that crudely measures somatic cell count in milk
    • screening test for mastitis
  34. colostrum
    antibody-rich first milk after parturition
  35. cull
    to target an animal for removal from the herd (usually due to low production or injury
  36. downer cow
    unable to rise due to disease or injury
  37. fresh cow
    a cow that has recently calved
  38. dry cow
    not lactating
  39. ketosis
    a common metabolic disease of dairy cattle characterized by excessive accumulation of ketone bodies
  40. lactation
    the period of time a cow produces milk after calving (generally 305 days or more per year)
  41. open cow
    not pregnant
  42. strip
    to remove several streams of milk from a teat by hand
  43. total mixed ration
    TMR contains all feed ingredients (including minerals, grains and vitamins) mixed together in a nutritionally balanced ratio
  44. Udder (cow)
    The udder of a dairy cow consists of 4 mammary glands; each gland has one teat, each teat has one orifice
  45. quarter
    each one of the four mammary glands making up a cow's udder is called a quarter
  46. adult female dog
    • bitch
    • usually used to refer to an intact, breeding femaie
  47. male dog used for breeding
  48. female parent (general term, many species)
  49. male parent (general term, many species)
  50. nursing puppy
  51. canine parturition
  52. female cat
    • queen 
    • usually refers to an intact, breeding female
  53. intact male cat
  54. an altered female cat
  55. AKC
    best known registry for purebred dogs in the US
  56. dog with a broad head and short muzzle
  57. dog with a narrow head and long muzzle
  58. uncommon name for a dog with a normally proportioned head
  59. Family (as in genus, species) of dogs and what is in that family
    Also, genus and species of domestic dogs
    • canidae
    • includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals.  
    • Canis familiaris
  60. first digit of dogs and cats
  61. heat
    estrus or fertile period
  62. most common feline coat pattern
    • tabby
    • thin pencil lines on the face and an "M" on the forehead
  63. Points (cat)
    • face, paws and tail
    • Siamese and a few other breeds have light bodies with darker points
  64. Official name for a furball in the GI tract of any animal species
  65. having extra digits
  66. Newborn equine of any sex
  67. young female equine
  68. young intact male equine
  69. colt or filly 6-12 months old
  70. equine around 1 year old
  71. adult female equine over 2-3 years old
  72. intact male equine over 2-3 years old
  73. castrated male equine
  74. female equine used for breeding
    brood mare
  75. a horse's mother
  76. a horse's father
  77. shape and proportion of the body and limbs
    • conformation
    • faults may predispose to lameness
  78. near side
    left side of a horse.  By tradition and custom, the side used to approach, mount or lead a horse
  79. off side
    the right side of a horse
  80. Sound (equine)
    no injuries, illnesses or conditions that affect its performance or intended use
  81. gait
    • walk, trot, canter, and gallop
    • 4 basic natural gaits
  82. equipment used on a horse
    • tack
    • includes halter, bridle, saddle, etc
  83. a long rein or rope on which a horse is held while it is made to move in a circle around its trainer
    longe (lunge) line
  84. the entire headpiece worn to control a horse when ridden
    • bridle
    • includes bit, reins, chin strap, and leather straps to hold it on the head
  85. headpiece with a ring for attaching a lead rope
  86. hand
    • four inches.  
    • Unit of measure for a horse's heigh measured at its withers.  
    • a 62" inch horse is 15.5 hands high, called 15.2
  87. a horse 14.2 hands or less
  88. a horse that has rolled against a wall and is unable to rise
  89. lashing out rapidly with one or both front feet
    • striking
    • don't stand directly in front of a horse
  90. tattoo (equine)
    • means of identification
    • inside of upper lip
  91. hanging weight
    carcass weight in goats, with blood and organs removed
  92. young pig prior to weaning (before 3-6 weeks)
    piglet, baby pig
  93. intact male pig at any age
  94. castrated male pig
  95. young female pig
    • gilt
    • after the first litter, called a sow
  96. adult female breeding pig
  97. parturition in swine
    • farrowing
    • after a gilt has had her first litter she is called a sow
  98. pig between weaning (3-6 weeks) and 55-70 lbs
    weaned pig, nursery pig, starting pig, weaner
  99. pig from 60 to 260 lbs
    grower, finisher, fattening pig, market pig
  100. time of slaughter for swine
    260 lbs is current market weight in US, usually reached around 5 months.  

    Britain's market weight is 150, so their pigs are rarely castrated.  (no boar taint)
  101. When head exam on bovine should be done
    last, causes anxiety
  102. bovine nasal discharge
    some serous discharge normal
  103. mucous membranes on bovines
    always hypersalivatory, not useful for hydration status (check enophthalmos instead)
  104. palpable lymph nodes in bovine head
    • mandibular (salivary glands are MUCH larger)
    • parotid
    • medial retropharyngeal only if enlarged
  105. why we sniff breath/nasal odor in bovine
    ketones or foul odor that indicates pharyngeal or lung abscess
  106. why we feel ears
    happy healthy cows have warm ears.
  107. Bovine eyes
    • corpora nigra, slow PLR normal.  Pupils horizontally elliptical
    • bluish-green tapetum
  108. Ways to restrain a cow
    • tail restraint
    • headlocks
    • chute
    • rope halter and quick release knot
    • casting
  109. normal dairy cow silhouette and what variations mean
    • Look from behind: symmetrical, bony is normal
    • asymmetry ("sprung rib cage") could indicate a DA, etc (ping test).  Rumen distended with gas
  110. Bovine rumen contraction rate
    1-2 per minute
  111. Bovine rumen palpation
    • left side
    • air on top near paralumbar fossa
    • fibrous mat
    • fluid below 
    • Ping (indicates gas pockets) from tuber coxae to olecranon with stethoscope
  112. withers pinch test
    pinch withers, cow will arch away.  Resist with abdominal pain
  113. spatial relationships in bovine abdomen
    • left side is pretty much just rumen
    • reticulum is cranial to rumen between ribs 6-8, ventromedial or slightly right.
    • abomasum flexed on abdominal floor, caudal to reticulum and ventral to rumen.
    • omasum is ventral on right abdomen beneath ribs 8-11.  
    • Spleen is craniodorsal to rumen on the left
    • intestines are right of midline.  Spiral colon, cecum
    • liver is right between diaphragm and omasum
  114. grunt test
    • detects local ventral abdominal pain (peritonitis, hardware disease, abomasal ulcers)
    • On right side, closed fist with gentle but deep pressure upwards to ventral abdomen, left and right of midline from cranial udder to xiphoid
  115. What bovine vulva can be used for
    mucous membrane color, hydration, CRT.
  116. How to stimulate urination in a cow
    rub the perineum (then check for ketones)
  117. veins and lymph nodes and info about the udder
    • four quarters, one teat each.  
    • Palpable supramammary lymph nodes
    • milk veins are crainial superficial epigastric, don't use these for anything (can bleed out or hematoma)
  118. how to take a pulse in a bovine
    coccygeal artery in tail, 6-12 inches from the base
  119. 2 ways to check hydration status
    • skin tent on neck
    • enophthalmos
  120. bovine lung field borders
    • 6th intercostal space at olecranon
    • 11th intercostal space dorsally
    • curved line between
    • Make sure to listen and use percussion
  121. bovine cardio sounds
    • can have a split S1, gallop rhythm.
    • P (L 3rd intercostal between shoulder and elbow)
    • A (L 4th at shoulder level)
    • M (LAV 5th between shoulder and elbow)
    • T (RAV 4th between shoulder and elbow)
    • WAAAAY under elbow to palpate apex beat
  122. Bovine hooks and points
    • hooks - tuber coxae
    • points - ischiatic tuberosity
  123. ascult abdomen of a horse
    • Right paralumbar fossa - cecum (toilet flush, 2-3 times per minute)
    • dorsal and ventral quadrants
    • large intestinal sounds are deep and rumbing
    • small intestinal sounds are fluid
    • Can ping with decreased sounds
  124. equine esophagus
    travels down left side of throat
  125. equine from mouth to anus
    oral, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum (right paralumbar fossa), right ventral colon, sternal flexure, left ventral colon, pelvic flexure, left dorsal colon, diaphragmatic flexure, right dorsal colon (huge and short), transverse colon (small) descending colon, rectum, anus
  126. Name the GI organs of equine between left and right body walls from dorsal to ventral
    • Left: descending colon, jejunum, left dorsal colon, left ventral colon
    • right: cecum, right dorsal colon, right ventral colon.
  127. normal appearance of equine vulva
    should be upright with lips completely closed.  "tipped" can cause pneumovagina and contamination.
  128. equine udder
    two teats and two glands, two openings on each teat.
  129. equine penis
    will drop the penis under sedation.  Prepuce is called the sheath.
  130. where/how to check vitals on a horse
    • gingeva for CRT, hydration
    • hydration can also be skin tent on neck, enophthalmos
    • Pulse from facial, transverse facial, digital  
    • jugular pulse okay if lower 1/3 only.
  131. horse lung field
    • epaxials dorsally, triceps line cranially, 6th rib at olecranon to costochondral 11th or 12th, to 16th intercostal space (horses have 18 ribs)
    • Can use rebreathing bag to ensure a big breath
  132. horse cardiac auscultation
    • P (L 3rd intercostal between shoulder and elbow)
    • A (L 4th at shoulder level)
    • M (LAV 5th between shoulder and elbow)
    • T (RAV 4th between shoulder and elbow)
    • S3 or S4 may be heard
  133. equine eye exam
    corpora nigra, PLR is slow, pupil sideways
  134. Equine cranial nerve VII signs
    • drooping of ear, eye (ptosis), or lower lip
    • nose will deviate towards the good side
    • loss of palpebral reflex
  135. equine cranial nerve V signs
    • dropped jaw, atrophy of masseter and temporal muscles
    • palpebral lost
    • no response to lips or nasal mucosa
  136. viborg's triangle
    • surgical access for ventral drainage from gutteral pouch
    • cranially by mandible, ventrally by linguofacial vein and caudodorsally by tendon sternocephalicus
  137. identify lameness at a trot
    Horse will throw head up when stepping on the bad leg, shorten stride on bad leg, soft tissues worse on soft ground and bones worse on hard ground, circle is worse when bad leg is inside.
  138. lung field in small animals
    CURVE from 11th intercostal space dorsally to the 6th costochondral junction
  139. describe sounds of tracheal, vesicular and lower airway sounds
    • tracheal - harsh, blowing
    • vesicular (thoracic wall) - quiet, wind through the trees
  140. describe adventital breath sounds
    • crackles: discontinuous short bursts of sound like crumpled cellophane (fluid)
    • wheezes: high-pitched musical sounds (narrowed airways)
    • stridor: harsh non-musical sounds (narrowing of upper airway)
  141. causes of decreased/muffled/absent lung sounds
    • accumulation of fluid, air or material in pleural space
    • pneumothorax, pleural effusion, diaphragmatic hernia, masses
  142. Menace response
    hand close to animal's eye, they should blink.  Tests II (vision) and VII (blink)
  143. palpebral
    V and VII
  144. PLR
    II and III
  145. Lymph nodes in SA
    • Palpable: mandibular, superficial cervical, popliteal
    • Palpate for: axillary, superficial inguinal, sublumbar
  146. What can you see in an otoscopic exam?
    • vertical canal
    • horizontal canal
    • tympanic membrane
  147. Where to place your hands for cranial drawer
    Patella and fabella, fibula and tibial tuberosity.
  148. Autonomous zones of common fibular, tibial, saphenous, radial, ulnar, musculocutaeous
    • common fibular: dorsal surface of foot (lateral)
    • tibial: plantar surface of foot (lateral)
    • saphenous: medial crus
    • radial: dorsal paw
    • ulnar: caudal antebrachium
    • musculocutaneous: medial antebrachium
  149. mucus vs mucous
    • mucus is a noun
    • mucous is an adverb
  150. SA cardiac auscultation
    • P (L 3rd intercostal between shoulder and elbow)
    • A (L 4th at shoulder level)
    • M (LAV 5th between shoulder and elbow)
    • T (RAV 4th between shoulder and elbow)
  151. What are S1 and S2
    • S1 is closure of the AV valves
    • S2 is closure of pulmonary and aortic valves
    • S1-S2 is systole, S2-S1 is diastole
  152. miosis, mydriasis, anisochoria
    • miosis is small pupils
    • mydriasis is dilated pupils
    • anisochoria is different sized pupils
  153. Schirmer tear test normal
    • dog: 15mm or more for a minute
    • cat: 5mm or more for a minute
  154. direct ophthalmoscopy
    ophthalmoscope, have to be close and see small field, but see right side up.  See better detail, hard to see peripheral.
  155. indirect ophthalmoscopy
    • lens and light source
    • can be far away, see bigger picture but less detail, picture is upside down and backwards
  156. how to differentiate a male from female cat perineum
    male has longer anogenital distance, testicles in between.