Capturing Food & Digestion
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Because animals are heterotrophs, how do they obtain energy?
They obtain energy by eating other organisms
Process of breaking down food into a soluble molecule small enough to be absorbed
Food particle is enclosed within a food vacuole
What animal utilizes intracellular digestion and why?
Utilized by sponges because they lack a mouth and gut
- Food enclosed in a vacuole
- Enzymes are added to vacuole & digestion takes place.
What does Extracellular Digestion require? (2)
- A digestive tract
- Organs that secrete digestive enzymes into the gut.
2 Types of digestive tracts
- Incomplete gut- gastrovascular cavity
- Complete gut- alimentary cavity
What does the region of reception include?
- Mouth parts
- Mouth cavity-salivary glands & tongue
How does a tongue use chemoreception?
It's used to detect prey
Passage for air & food cross
Tips down closing trachea
What serves in conduction?
What does the Crop serve for?
Storage before digestion
Contraction of esophogeal muscles move food down.
3 ways the stomach serves in early digestion
- Derived from posterior part of stomach
Adaptations to increase surface area in the small intestine
- Increased length
- Tissue Level
- Epithelial tissue forms finger-like projections
- Cellular Level
- Cell membrane forms finger-like projections
Bile emulsifies fats & increases surface area available for fat digesting enzymes to act
Gastric Bypass Surgery
- Staples close off much of stomach
- Reattached on other side of duodenum
How do nutrients move from the lumen to epithelial cells?
The nutrients must cross the cell membrane
How do epithelial cells enter into the circulatory system?
They diffuse into blood capillaries & enter the blood circulatory system
How do epithelial cells enter the lymphatic system?
Chemical changes occur inside the epithelial cells and then they diffuse into the lymphatic system.
Large intestine is the sight of- (2)
- Re absorption of H20 & salts
- Considerable microbial activity
- Short intestinal tract
- No plant material
- Large teeth for prey capture
- High protein diet, shorter digestive tract
Why can't Herbivores digest cellulose directly? What have they evolved?
- They lack the enzyme cellulose
- Have evolved cooperative relationships with microorganisms
Herbivore digestive system types (3)
- Large 4 chambered stomach w/ rumination
- Large multichambered stomach w/out rumination
- Enlarged cecum
- Fermentation chamber
- Bacteria breaks down cellulose
- Capture animal prey & eat plant material
- Intermediate digestive system
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