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- useful for very fast speaker
- -exchange general for specific details
- - must be careful / only where appropriate
Omission under duress - 4 reasons
- -fast speaker
- -technical subject
- -the mode of expression of the speaker
- -MIXTURE of above
what to do in case where omission is necessary?
- -retain essential, cut out asides digressions
- -give yourself more time/distance from speaker
what to do in case of a fast speaker? 5 things
- -take some distance
- -analyze fully
- -use every technique (4 - salami, simplification, generalization, omission) for greatest quantity of meaning in as few syllables as possible
- -stay calm and collected
- -if necessary ask through microphone to delegates to request to speak slower (usually not very effective)
What to do if speaker is reading text able to obtain?
- - request the text BEFORE if possible
- - if not before, use to identify specific references> proper names, tech. terms, numbers
- -don't sight read as too much concentration
- -concentrate on listening to speaker, and text as specific problematic aspects
what if speaker is reading text unable to obtain?
- -do your best
- - warn audience have no written version
- -if necessary, tell audience it is impossible and stop interpreting
What is summarizing/recapitulation
- -added by interpreter to give full picture
- -for eg in case of fluffy question.
- -time permitting (though can help save time, eg. for repeated reference) - VFT very fast train
- -notions, cultural and institutional references
- -anticipate broad structure of speech
- -recognize speech patterns and rhetorical structures
- -anticipate specific words/phrases (esp for languages v. different syntax)
BUT be careful
What sort of scenarios might a mistake be made? (5)
- -mistake in anticipation
- -slip of the tongue
- -interpret reference incorrectly
What to do if a mistake is made?
- If of no bearing: pass over
- if significant: not necessary, but if possible, slip in apology and CORRECTION
- in a way MATTER OF FACT + apology
IF CLEAR MATERIAL MISTAKE: must correct and apologize
IF SPEAKER makes a mistake?
- - not as common as interpreters think: extreme caution
- -slip of the tongue: if 99% sure incorrect, may correct
-"says the speaker, but i think he means..."
-"says the speaker" when not sure what is correct but speaker is clearly wrong. (avoid too much repetition)
-if speaker is using a foreign language without mastery and message v. unclear- can say at end - not totally clear as to meeaning as speaker is using a foreign language.
What to do if speaker announces will make a joke, metaphor, saying, amount of points etc?
-do not announce to avoid committing yourself.
What to do if the speaker uses a saying that does not have an equivalent in the target language?
express the sense meant
What to do if the speaker uses a saying that is not understood?
say it is a saying and interpret as literally as possible
What to do if the speaker uses a saying that is understood with no word-for-word equivalent?
give equivalent of meaning.
Why is it important to have an appropriate body of pat phrases in field of interpretation?
require no intellectual effort
What causes interpreters to use stress, intonation and pauses inadequately?
- -feeling cut-off from communicative process
- -under pressure
- -trying to sound too cool and calm
- -too much stress, overacting
- -not knowing what comes next, intonation may betray this (solve by being able to finish sentence)
- -use right intonation and pauses to own words
What techniques use to cope with numbers
- - focus on MAGNITUDE UNIT increase/decrease
- for more than 2 numbers: unload memory, say as soon as possible to repeat as soon as possible - accelerate if necessary
- -say numbers first
- -NOTE DOWN as heard
- TEAM WORK? WRITE BIG!
- -approximations where v. necessary
If engaged in RETOUR interpreting, should you try to render every nuance and style?
- Energies spent in understanding and/or reformulation
- -concentrate on communication
- -modest in style to ensure what they do, they do well.
- -avoid complex grammatical forms
- -make use of salami technique, simple self-contained sentences
Why is clarity of form and content important when doing RELAY?
- because it needs to serve others for source
- -focus on content
- -FORM= articulate clearly
- -work closer to source to give more time
- -remember psychology or relay, reassure collegues by speaking asap
- -remember collegues may not be working into first lang, so keep simple
- -make clear changes in language:change in speaker
What do all techniques studied have in common?
- -be used in a way that is audience-specific and
- -context specific