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What are hormones?
Powerful chemical substances manufactured by the endocrine gland
List the most important sex hormones:
Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone
What is testosterone?
Masculinizing sex hormone - sexual behavior & muscle strength
What does Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) do?
Controls sperm production and stimulates the development of ovarian follicle.
What does Luteinizing Hormone (LH) do?
"The ovulating hormone" - Allows ovaries to release mature egg. Also controls testosterone production
What does the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
Regulates the pituitary’s secretion of gonad-stimulating hormones
Name the sex hormones in males
- Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
- Luteinizing Hormone
- Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
What are the sex hormones in females?
What does estrogen do?
Brings about many of the changes of puberty. Influencing the menstrual cycle and pregnancy and sexual behavior
What is the purpose of prolactin?
Stimulates production of milk by the mammary glands
Name the functions of oxytocin:
- -Stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth
- – Promotes ejection of milk from nipples
- – Promotes affection
An enzyme that chemically converts testosterone into estrogen
Where is aromatase found?
- Adrenal Glands
- Fat (Adipose) Tissue
- Testicles & Ovaries
What glands produce testosterone in females?
What do the sex chromosomes do in the prenatal stage?
Transmit information to various organs on how to differentiate in the course of development
Who passes the "x" chromosome?
Who passes the "y" chromosome?
When do males develop testis?
7 weeks after conception
When do females form ovaries?
At about 13 to 14 weeks
What is SRY?
Sex determining region otherwise known as the "y" chromosome.
In females, what do the Mullerian ducts turn into?
Mullerian ducts turn into fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the upper part of the vagina
In males, what do the Wolffian ducts turn into?
Wolffian ducts, supported by testosterone, turn into the epididymis, vas deferens, and the ejaculatory duct
What are homologous organs?
Organs in the male and female that develop from the same embryonic tissue
What are analogous organs?
Organs in the male and female that have similar functions
What are the 9 variables of gender?
- 1. Chromosomal gender
- 2. Gonadal gender
- 3. Prenatal hormonal gender
- 4. Prenatal and neonatal brain differentiation
- 5. Internal organs
- 6. External genital appearance
- 7. Pubertal hormonal gender
- 8. Assigned gender
- 9. Gender identity
What is puberty?
The time during which there is a sudden enlargement and maturation of the gonads, other genitalia, and secondary sex characteristics, leading to reproductive capacity
What is adolescence?
A psychological transition from the behavior and attitudes of a child to the behavior, attitudes, and responsibilities of an adult
Name the pubertal changes in females:
- - Breast development
- – Growth of pubic hair
- – Increased body growth
What is menarche?
- First menstruation at about 12 to 13 years
- of age
Name the pubertal changes in males:
- • Growth of testes and scrotal sac
- • Growth of pubic hair
- • Penis enlarges
- • Growth of facial and auxiliary hair
- • Erections increase in frequency
- • Voice drops or changes
- • Increased body growth
When do females begin to experience puberty?
8-12 years of age
When do males begin to experience puberty?
Begins from age 10-11
What 8 variables are involved with gender?
6 biological and 2 psychological
What are intersex people?
People who have characteristics of both genders
What are testes?
2 structures that generate immature sperm
A long, coiled tube that connects to a testicle and stores maturing sperm
A pouch like sac that houses the testis and epididymis
A walnut sized gland that produces fluid that nourishes the sperm cells
The sexually sensitive organ used during intercourse that ejaculates semen
What is semen?
A secretion that contains sperm and fluids produced by the accessory glands
What are the accessory sex glands?
Prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands
The seminal vesicles...
produce most of the fluid found in semen.
What do the bulbourethral glands do?
They produce fluid that neutralizes any acidity found in the urethra as a result of urine and lubricates the urethra for the passage of sperm
What is responsible for the pre-ejaculatory fluid?
What are the female internal reproductive structures?
Fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina(birth canal)
What does the vagina do?
Accept that man's penis during intercourse and provides the birth canal
What is the uterus?
Otherwise known as the womb; where the baby develops inside the mother
What are ovaries?
Structures that produce an egg
What are fallopian tubes?
Passageway that allows egg to go to uterus. Fertilization occurs here.
What is the cervix?
Allows sperm to enter and fertilize an egg and also allows baby to leave the womb and enter vaginal canal
Name the external female reproductive structures
Labia majora, labia minora, prepuce, clitoris, vestibule, vestibular glands, and mons pubis
What are the external female genital organs collectively called?
"For gestation" - Hormone responsible for the preperation of the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg and for the maintenance of pregnancy
What is the ovarian follicle?
Structure that includes an immature egg