Perception and Learning: Understanding and Adapting to the Work Environment
The process of combining, integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them
The process through which individuals attempt to determine the causes behind others' behavior
The characteristics that define a particular individual.
Who a person is, as defined in terms of his or her membership in various social groups.
social identity theory
A conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is based on both our unique characteristics (see personal identity) and our membership in various groups (see social identity).
basking in reflected glory
The tendency for people to identify themselves with the successes of others such that those others' success becomes their own.
sociaI identity theory
A conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is based on both our unique characteristics (see personal identity) and our membership in various groups .
cutting off reflected failure
The tendency for people to avoid making failure part of their identities by dissociating themselves from individuals or teams that have lost.
Judgments about people's dispositions, their traits and characteristics, that correspond to what we have observed of their actions.
internal causes of behavior
Explanations based on actions for which the individual is responsible.
external causes of behavior
Explanations based on situations over which the individual has no control.
Kelley's theory of causal attribution
The approach suggesting that people will believe others’ actions to be caused by internal or external factors based on three types of information: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness.
In Kelley's theory of causal attributors, information regarding the extent to which other people behave in the same manner as the person we're judging.
In Kelley's theory of causal attribution, information regarding the extent to which the person we're judging acts the same way at other times.
If Kelley's theory of causal attribution, information regarding the extent to which a person behaves in the same manner in other contexts.
Predispositions that people have to misperceive others in various ways.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency to attribute others' actions to internal causes (e.g., their traits) while largely ignoring external factors that also may have influenced behavior.
The tendency for our overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits; perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated.
team halo effect
The tendency for people to credit teams for their successes but not to hold them accountable for their failures.
The tendency for people to perceive in a positive light others who are believed to be similar to themselves in any of several different ways.
The tendency to base our judgements of others on our earlier impressions of them
The tendency for someone's expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. This can be either positive (see the Pygmalion effect) or negative (see the Golem effect) in nature.
A negative instance of the self-fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that individual's performance.
A belief that all members of specific groups share certain traits and are prone to behave similarly as a result.
The uncomfortable feeling that people have when they run the risk of fulfilling a negative stereotype associated with a group to which they belong.
Efforts by individuals to improve how they appear to others.
The process of evaluating employees on various work-related dimensions.
A relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience.
The form of learning in which people associate the consequences of their actions with the actions themselves. Behaviors with positive consequences are acquired; behaviors with negative consequences are avoided.
See operant conditioning
Law of Effect
The tendency for behaviors leading to desirable consequences to be strengthen and those leading to undesirable consequences to be weakened.
contingencies of reinforcement
The various relationships between one's behavior and the consequences of that behavior-positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.
The process by which people learn to perform behaviours that leads to the presentation of desired outcomes.
The process by which people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of undesired events.
See negative reinforcement.
Decreasing undesirable behaviour by following it with undesirable consequences
The process through which responses that are no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish in strength.
observational learning (modeling)
The form of learning in which people acquire new behaviors by systematically observing the rewards and punishments given to others.
The process of systematically teaching employees to acquire and improve job-related skills and knowledge.
The process of teaching people how to do their jobs by explaining various job requirements and how to meet them.
Formal training programs involving both on-the-job and classroom training usually over a long period, often used for training people in the skilled trades.
cross-cultural training (CCT)
A systematic way of preparing employees to live and work in another country.
Centers devoted to handling a company's training needs on a full-time basis.
executive training programs
Sessions in which companies systematically attempt to develop their top leaders, either in specific skills or general managerial skills.
Training based on disseminating information online, such as through the Internet or a company's internal intranet network.
principles of learning
The set of practices that make training effective, participation, repetition, transfer of training, and feedback. (See transfer of training.)
Active involvement in the process of learning; more active participation leads to more effective leaning.
The process of repeatedly performing a task so that it may be learned.
A collection of learner-centered techniques in which individuals are active participants in the learning process.
transfer of training
The degree to which the skills learned during training sessions may be applied to performance of one's job.
(1) Knowledge about the impact of messages on receivers. (2) Knowledge of the results of one's behavior.
The process of systematically giving and receiving feedback between individuals at various organizational levels.
organizational behavior management (OB Mod)
The practice of altering behavior in organizations by systematically administering rewards.
The process of systematically administering punishments.
The practice of gradually increasing the severity of punishments for employees whoexhibit unacceptable job behaviour.