Work Psychology Chapter 4

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Work Psychology Chapter 4
2015-09-28 12:13:53
work psy

Chapter 4 Individual Differences, Personalities, Skills, and Abilities
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  1. individual differences
    The many ways in which individuals differ from each other.
  2. personality
    The unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals.
  3. interactionist perspective
    The view that behavior is a result of a complex interplay between personality and situational factors.
  4. person-job fit
    The extent to which the traits and abilities of individuals match the requirements of the jobs they must perform.
  5. objective tests
    Questionnaires and inventories designed to measure various aspects of personality.
  6. Reliability
    The extent to which a test yields consistent scores on various occasions, and the extent to which all of its items measure the same underlying construct.
  7. validity
    The extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure.
  8. predictive validity
    The extent to which the score achieved on a test administered to a person at one time predicts (i.e., is correlated with) some measure of his or her performance at some later time.
  9. Big Five dimensions of personality
    Five basic dimensions of personality that are related strongly to different forms of organization behavior.
  10. extraversion
    A tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people; one of the Big Five personality dimensions.
  11. agreeableness
    A tendency to be compassionate toward others; one of the Big Five personality dimensions.
  12. conscientiousness
    A tendency to show self-discipline, to strive for competence and achievement; one of the Big Five personality dimensions.
  13. neuroticism
    A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily; one of the Big Five personality dimensions.
  14. openness to experience
    Personality variable that reflects the degree to which people are interested in things that are new and different and get excited by new ideas.
  15. positive affectivity
    The tendency to experience positive moods and feelings in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions.
  16. negative affectivity
    The tendency to experience negative moods in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions.
  17. core self-evaluation
    People's fundamental evaluations of themselves, their bottom-line conclusions about themselves.
  18. self-esteem
    The overall value one places on oneself as a person.
  19. generalized self-efficacy
    A person's beliefs about his or her capacity to perform specific tasks successfully.
  20. locus of control
    The extent to which individuals feel that they are able to control things in a manner that affects them.
  21. emotional stability
    The tendency to see oneself as confident, secure, and steady (the opposite of neuroticism, one of the Big Five personality variables).
  22. Machiavellianisrn
    A personality trait involving willingness to manipulate others for one's own purposes.
  23. perforrnance goal orientation
    The desire to perform well to demonstrate one's competence to others.
  24. learning goal orientation
    The desire to perform well because it satisfies an interest in meeting a challenge and learning new skills.
  25. achievement motivation (need for achievement)
    The strength of an individual's desire to excel - to succeed at difficult tasks and to do them better than others.
  26. avoidance goal orientation
    The desire to achieve success to avoid appearing incompetent and to avoid receiving negative evaluation from others.
  27. abilities
    Mental and physical capacities to perform various tasks.
  28. morning persons
    Individuals who feel most energetic and alert early in the day.
  29. evening persons
    Individuals who feel most energetic and alert late in the day or at night.
  30. skills
    Dexterity at performing specific tasks, which has been acquired through training or experience.
  31. cognitive intelligence
    The ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles with careful thought.
  32. practical intelligence
    Adeptness at solving the practical problems of everyday life.
  33. Emotional intelligence (El)
    The ability to make accurate judgments of emotions and to use such knowledge to enhance the quality of one's thinking; skills involved include the ability to recognize and regulate our own emotions, to influence those of others, and to facilitate performance.
  34. cascading model of emotional intelligence
    Conceptualization proposing that emotional intelligence influences job performance through a succession of abilities: the ability to perceive emotions, then to understand them, and then to regulate them; these abilities, in turn, are linked to personality variables, such as conscientiousness and neuroticism, and also to cognitive ability.
  35. physical abilities
    People's capacities to engage in the physical tasks required to perform a job.
  36. social skills
    The capacity to interact effectively with others.