Chapter 5 Coping with Organizational Life: Emotions and Stress
Overt reactions that express feelings about events.
The tendency to mimic the emotional expressions of others, converging with them emotionally.
Cultural norms about the appropriate ways to express emotions.
Feelings that stem from within, such as shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride.
People's feelings based on information external to themselves, such as pity, envy, jealousy, and scorn.
circumflex model of affect
A theory of emotional behavior based on the degree to which emotions are pleasant or unpleasant and the degree to which they make one feel activated (i.e., feeling alert and engaged).
An unfocused, relatively mild feeling that exists as background to our daily experiences.
accommodative processing (bottom-up processing)
A way of processing information in which people carefully observe what is going on around them so that they can respond to situations appropriately.
assimilative processing (top-down processing)
A way of processing information in which people rely on the knowledge already at their disposal instead of taking in new information.
The tendency to recall positive things when you are in a good mood and to recall negative things when you are in a bad mood.
affective events theory (AET)
The theory that identifies various factors that lead to people's emotional reactions on the job and how these reactions affect those individuals.
The psychological effort involved in holding back one's true emotions.
Unpleasant or undesirable events that put people in bad moods.
Pleasant or desirable events that put people in good moods.
Inconsistencies between the emotions we feel and the emotions we express. felt emotions The emotions people actually feel (which may differ from displayed emotions).
Emotions that people show others, which may or may not be in line with their felt emotions.
A heightened state of emotional arousal (e.g., increased heart rate, rapid breathing, flushed face, sweaty palms. etc.) fueled by cognitive interpretations of situations.
Systematic efforts to reduce people’s emotional feelings of anger and the physiological arousal it causes.
The pattern of emotional and physiological reactions occurring in response to demands from within oroutside an organization. See stressor.
Any demands, either physical or psychological in nature, encountered during the course of living.
Stressors that bring some form of sudden change that threatens us either physically or psychologically, requiring people to make unwanted adjustments.
The result of experiencing lots of acute stressors in a short period of time.
The most extreme type of stressor, constant and unrelenting in nature, and having a long-term effect on the body, mind, and spirit.
An automatic rapid escape from a dangerous situation.
Deviations from normal states of human functioning resulting from prolonged exposure to stressful events.
The extent to which one is able to "bounce back" from potentially stressful situations without being harmed by them.
A syndrome of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion coupled with feelings oflow self-esteem or low self-efficacy, resulting from prolonged exposure to intense stress, and the strain reactions following from them.
Incompatibilities between the various sets of obligations people face.
The need to switch back and forth between the demands of work and family.
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.
Confusion arising from uncertainty regarding exactly what one is expected to do as a role incumbent.
The friendship and support of others, which help minimize reactions to stress.
Lashing out at others in response to stressful encounters on the job.
employee assistance programs (EAPs)
Plans offered by employers that provide their employees with assistance for various personal problems (e.g., substance abuse, career planning, financial and legal problems).
member assistance programs (MAPs)
Plans offered by trade unions that provide their members with assistance for various personal problems (e.g., substance abuse, career planning, financial and legal problems).
stress management programs
Systematic efforts to train employees in a variety of techniques that they can use tobecome less adversely affected by stress.
Company-wide programs in which employees receive training regarding things they can do to promote healthy lifestyles.
The practice of showing up for work but being too sick to be able to work effectively.
The practice of taking control over how we spend time.
The process in which a neutral party (known as a mediator) works together with two or more parties sides to reach a settlement to their conflict.
A brief delay in activities designed to reduce mounting tension.