Work Psychology Chapter 6

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Elli
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308680
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Work Psychology Chapter 6
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2015-09-28 13:30:13
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work psy
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Chapter 6 Work-Related Attitudes, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment
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  1. attitudes
    Relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs, and behavioral intentions toward a specific object, person, or institution.
  2. work-related attitudes
    Attitudes relating to any aspect of work or work settings.
  3. evaluative component (of attitudes)
    Our liking or disliking of any particular person, item, or event.
  4. cognitive component (of attitudes)
    The things we believe about an attitude object, whether they are true or false.
  5. behavioral component (of attitudes)
    Our predisposition to behave in a way consistent with our beliefs and feelings about an attitude object.
  6. prejudice
    Negative attitudes toward the members of specific groups, based solely on the fact that they are members of those groups (e.g., based on age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation).
  7. organizational demography
    The nature of the composition of a workforce with respect to various characteristics (e.g., age, gender, ethnic makeup, etc.).
  8. stereotypes
    Beliefs that individuals posess certain characteristics because of their membership in certain groups.
  9. discrimination
    The behavior consistent with a prejudicial attitude; the act of treating someone negatively because of his or her membership in a specific group.
  10. sex-role stereotypes
    Narrow-minded beliefs about the qualities of women and men and the kinds of tasks for which each is most appropriately suited.
  11. glass ceiling
    Invisible barriers that keep women from advancing as rapidly as men in certain fields.
  12. religious intolerance
    Actions (e.g., personal ridicule, vandalism) taken against persons or groups based on their faith.
  13. affirmative action laws
    Legislation designed to give employment opportunities to groups that have historically been underrepresented in the workforce, such as women and members of minority groups
  14. non-preferential affirmative action
    Efforts to get companies to conduct ongoing, conscious appraisals of their rules and procedures and to eliminate those that exclude women and members of minority groups without sufficient justification.
  15. preferential affirmative action
    The practice of hiring women and members of minority groups in proportion to their representation in the population near organizations.
  16. diversity management programs
    Programs in which employees are taught to celebrate the differences between people and in which organizations create supportive work environments for women and minorities.
  17. inclusion
    Making people feel valued as worthwhile members of the organization.
  18. affinity groups
    Informal collections of individuals who share a common identity with respect to such factors as race, ethnicity, or sexual preference.
  19. job satisfaction
    Positive.or negative attitudes held by individuals toward their jobs.
  20. dispositional model of job satisfaction
    The conceptualization proposing that job satisfaction is a relatively stable disposition of an individual-that is, a characteristic that stays with people through situations.
  21. value theory of job satisfaction
    A theory suggesting that job satisfaction depends primarily on the match between the outcomes individuals value in their jobs and their perceptions about the availability of such outcomes.
  22. social information processing model
    A conceptualization specifying that people adopt attitudes and behaviours in keeping with the cues provided by others with whom they come into contact.
  23. employee withdrawal
    Actions, such as chronic absenteeism and voluntary turnover (i.e., quitting one's job), that enable employees to escape from adverse organizational situations.
  24. voluntary turnover
    A form of employee withdrawal in which an individual resigns freely from his or her job.
  25. honeymoon effect
    The tendency for people to enjoy high levels of satisfaction on new jobs that they have taken in response to dissatisfaction with their old jobs.
  26. hangover effect
    The tendency for people's levels of satisfaction to drop over time from when a position is brand new to when one gains more experience with it.
  27. honeymoon-hangover effect
    The tendency for the honey-moon effect to occur (i.e., for job satisfaction to increase as a dissatisfied person takes a new job) followed by the hangover effect (i.e., for the high levels of satisfaction associated with a new job to decline over time).
  28. unfolding model of voluntary turnover
    A conceptualization that explains the cognitive processes through which people make decisions about quitting or staying on their jobs.
  29. absenteeism
    The practice of staying away from the job when scheduled to work.
  30. hi-performance work systems
    Organizations that offer employees opportunities to participate in decision making, provide incentives for them to do so, and emphasize opportunities to develop skills.
  31. organizational commitment
    The extent to which an individual identifies and is involved with his or her organization and/or is unwilling to leave it.
  32. continuance commitment
    The strength of a person's desire to continue working for an organization because he or she needs to do so and cannot afford to do otherwise.
  33. normative commitment
    The strength of a person's desire to continue working for an organization because he or she feels obligations from others to remain there.
  34. affective commitment
    The strength of a person's desire to work for an organization because he or she regards it positively and agrees with its goals and values.
  35. gain-sharing plans
    Incentive plans in which employees receive bonuses in proportion to their company's profitability.

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