Pharmacology Ch 10 Antimicrobials

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Pharmacology Ch 10 Antimicrobials
2015-10-10 17:52:49
Pharm 10

Pharmacology Ch 10
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  1. Drugs that kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, viruses and fungi
  2. Suffix that means kills microogranisms
  3. Suffix that means inhibits growth
  4. Antimicrobial produced by microorganisms
  5. Synthetics that is toxic to bacteria
  6. Not taken internally, cleans
    Disinfectants and antiseptics
  7. Primary goal of antimicrobial therapy
    Kill microorganism without killing the patient
  8. How bacteria become resistant iatrogenically
    • 1) Antibiotics feed over long periods of time
    • 2) Failure to administer antibiotics for an appropriate period of time
    • 3) Failure to consider pharmacokinetics
  9. 5 ways antimicrobials kill bacteria
    • Cell wall
    • Cell membrane permeability
    • Ribosomes
    • Critical enzymes
    • Nucleic acids
  10. Antimicrobial kills by lysing cell wall and kill bacteria, only effective in growing bacteria
    Cell wall
  11. Antimicorbial kills by the drug not destroying wall but penetrates cell wall and membrane bringing about death inside cell once entered
    Cell membrane permeability
  12. Anitmicorbial kills by blocking protein synthesis by interfering with sequence of amino acids and thus protein development
  13. Antimicrobial kills by attaching to enzymes needed in conversion of food and growth products thus starving the animal
    Critical enzymes
  14. Antimicorbial most sophisticated way to kill, damage nucleic acid production of bacteria preventing normal division
    Nucleic acids
  15. Suffix of penicillin classification
  16. Most common antibiotic in vet medicine
  17. Synthetic derivatives of penicillin
    • PenVK
    • Ampicillin
    • Amoxicillin
    • Hetacillin
    • Cloxacillin
  18. How does penicillin kill
    Cell wall lysis
  19. Is penicillin a bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
  20. Penicillin is effective against what?
    Gram positive bacteria
  21. Vehicles for penicillin
    Procaine and Benzathine
  22. Beta-Lactam drugs information
    • Includes penicillins, cephalosporins, etc. 
    • Act by disrupting bacterial cell wall synthesis.
    • B-lactamase enzyme production damages B-lactam ring of these compounds and renders them ineffective, common in causing nosocomial infections.
  23. Pharmacodynamics of penicillins
    Some are beta-lactamase resistant or penicillinase resistant by converting penicillin to inactive penicillic acid
  24. Antagonists of Penicillin G, Penicillin V, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, and Methacillin
    • Tetracycline
    • C/M
  25. Antagonists of Oxacillin
  26. Antagonists of Ampicillin, Hetacillin, Amoxicillin, and Carbenicillin
    • C/M
    • Erythromycin
    • Tetracyclines
    • Cephalosporins
  27. Adverse side effects with penicillin
    • Check BUN and creatinine in geriatric patients 
    • Excreted in milk so check withdrawl times
  28. Vehicles are...
    Chemicals added to a drug to extend period of effect and increase the effect
  29. Prefix of cephalosporins
    Ceph or Cef
  30. Cephalosporins are effective against what
    Gram positive, broad spectrum
  31. How are cephalosporins classified
    By generations, higher the number the more gram negative effectiveness
  32. Are cephalosporins bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
  33. First generation cephalosporin
    Cephalexin (Keflex)
  34. Second generation cephalosporin
    Cefaclor (Ceclor)
  35. Third generation cephalosporin
    • Cefixime (Suprax)
    • Antipseudomonal IV only
    • Ceftazidime (Fortaz)
  36. Fourth generation cephalosporin
    Cefepime (Maxipime) IV only
  37. Only antagonist to cephalosporins
  38. Dosage forms of cephalosporins
    • Cefa-drops
    • Cefa-tabs
    • Cefa-lax (mastitis treatment)
    • Naxcel (approved for use in lactating dairy animals)
    • Excenel (injectable suspension)
  39. Bacitracin and Polymyxin B effective against what, and kills hows?
    • Gram positive bacteria
    • Topical use 
    • Bacteriostatic
  40. OTC triple antibiotic ointment ingredients
    Bacitracin, Polymyxin B, and Neomycin
  41. Aminoglycosides effective against what
    Gram negative bacteria, today are broad spectrum
  42. Types of aminoglycosides
    • Gentamicin
    • Amikacin
    • Neomycin
    • Streptomycin 
    • Dihydrostrep
    • Apramycin
    • Kanamycin
    • Tobramycin
  43. Drawbacks of aminoglycosides
    • Kidney toxicity and 8th cranial nerve damge
    • Ototoxic in felines
  44. How do aminoglycosides kill
    Combine with ribosomes interfering with amino acid sequence
  45. Are aminoglycosides bactericidal or bacteriostatic
  46. Antagonists of aminoglycosides
    Penicillin and its derivatives
  47. Aminoglycosides come in what form mainly?
    Injectable because not readily absorbed in the GI tract
  48. What is neomycin good for?
    Oral medication because its not absorbed in the GI tract tissues and is good for infections inside the GI tract.
  49. Are tetracyclines bacteriostatic or bactericidal?
  50. How do tetracyclines kill?
    Binds to ribosomes disrupting amino acid sequence
  51. Tetracyclines effective against what
    Broad spectrum, mycoplasmas, spirochetes, and chlamydia
  52. Precautions of tetracyclines
    • Chelates with minerals of developing tooth enamel and bones imparting a yellow discoloration. 
    • Hepatoxic
  53. Distribution facts of tetracycline
    • Absorption by GI tract is lowered by presence of food, milk and antacids
    • Quickly distributed throughout tissues and may penetrate CNS
  54. Antagonists of tetracyclines
    Antacids, milk, diuretics and penicillins
  55. Forms of tetracyclines
    • Oxytetracycline
    • Doxycycline
    • Minocycline
    • Chlortetracycline
  56. Is choramphenicol bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
    Bacteriostatic in low doses and bactericidal in high doses
  57. What species to not use choramphenicol in?
    Reptiles, food animals, and causes anorexia in felines
  58. Choramphenicols penetrate what?
    CNS, prostate and globe of the eye
  59. Choramphenicols cause what in humans?
    Gray baby syndrome. Destroys RBC and prevents carrying of oxygen and turning them gray.
  60. Choramphenicol mixed with what causes a vehicle?
  61. Lincosamides are effective against what?
    Gram positive bacteria
  62. Clindamycin treats what?
    Pyodermas, wounds, abscesses and used in dentals (antirobe)
  63. Erythromycin and Tylosin kill how?
    Binding to ribosomes with no amino acid sequence, penetrates many tissues but not CNS
  64. Drug of choice for allergic issues and prostate infections?
  65. Sulfonamides are classified by 2 ways..
    • 1) Degree of absorption
    • 2) Length of action (SID, BID)
  66. How do Sulfonamides kill?
    Interfering with formation of folic acid so effective against bacteria that form their own folic acid.
  67. Sulfonamides effective against what
    Gram positive, gram negative and coccidia
  68. Precautions with sulfonamides
    Drink with lots of water due to dryness of cornea
  69. Quinolones effective against what
    Gram positive rods, gram negative, pseduomonas, aeromonas, beta-lactam
  70. Enrofloxacin proprietary name
  71. Orbifloxacin proprietary name
  72. Pradofloxacin proprietary name
  73. Ciprofloxacin proprietary name
    Cipro (anthrax treatment in humans)
  74. How do quinolones kill
    Death is due to interference with nucleic acids
  75. Surgically puncture tympanic membrane to decrease pressure and insert medicine, ear drum grows back in 21-28 days.
  76. Other forms of quinolones
    • Difloxacin hydrochloride (Dicural)
    • Sarafloxacin
    • Marbofloxacin (Zeniquin)
    • Norfloxacin (Noroxin)
  77. Side effects of quinolones
    Affects developing joint cartilage
  78. Veraflox used to treat what?
    Treat skin infections in cats caused by pasteurella, strep and staph.
  79. Metronidazole effective against what
    Giardia, entameba, trichomonas, balantidium and anaerobic bacteria
  80. What is the most common antibiotic used in cats?
  81. Metronidazole used to treat what?
    Anti-inflammatory effect on the bowel. Often used with corticosteroids with inflammatory bowel disease in cats and periodontal disease.
  82. Microbiocidal drugs that penetrate the CNS
    • Trimethoprim-sulfonamide 
    • Metronidazole
    • Ofloxacin
  83. Microbiostatic drugs that penetrate the CNS
    • Choramphenicol 
    • Sufonamides
    • Doxycycline
    • Fluconazole
    • Pyrazinamide 
    • Isonlazid
  84. Fungal infection
  85. 2 types of fungal infections
    • Superficial: affecting skin and mucous membranes, referred to as dermatophytes
    • Systemic: Affecting blood, lungs, skeleton, lymph nodes or CNS
  86. What percentage is microsporum canis is felines
  87. What percentage is microsporum canis in canines
  88. Fungal spore in the soil
  89. Amphotericin B information
    • Can be fungistatic or fungicidal. 
    • Proprietary name: Fungizone
    • Mixed with D5W given IV.
    • Breaks down membrane wall for early death
  90. Ketoconazole and miconazole information
    • Topical used in humans.
    • Effects testosterone production in males and normal cortisol levels from adrenal gland
  91. Antifungal drugs
    • Amphotericin B
    • Ketoconazole and miconazole
    • Miconazole nitrate
    • Sulconazole nitrate
    • Nystatin
    • Griseofulvin
    • Luliconazole
  92. What does Miconazole nitrate treat?
    Dermatophytes and yeasts
  93. What does sulconazole nitrate treat?
  94. Nystatin information
    • Oral and topical
    • Used in avain species
    • Most commonly used to treat Candidas albicans (Candidiasis)
  95. Griseofulvin information
    • Oral
    • Effective against ringworm
  96. What is the most common topical anti fungal drug
  97. Anti viral drugs kill by what two methods?
    • Interferon 
    • Complement
  98. Cells invaded by viruses and produce chemical called interferon and interferes with ability of virus to cause disease by preventing their replication within the host (static)
  99. Group of enzymes becomes activated during infections. Complement binds to invading viral cell wall and produces small holes in membrane rupturing cells (Lysis)
  100. Anti viral drugs used to treat what?
    Optic viral infections and non-neoplastic feline leukemia virus
  101. Examples of anti viral drugs
    • Amantadine
    • Ganciclovir
    • Idoxuridine
    • Azidothymidine
  102. Drug concentration at the lower end of the therapeutic range for the antibiotic; concentration of drug at which bacteria are inhibited.
    Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
  103. Means decrease in number of platelets
  104. Disease-causing agents
  105. Range of bacteria that can be killed by a particular antimicorbial
    Spectrum of activity
  106. Traces of leftover drug in the tissue long after the antimicorbial drug has been stopped
  107. Chemical structure found in penicillin and cephalosporins; can be the site of action for some bacterial enzymes
    B-lactam ring
  108. Having an allergic reaction to a drug
  109. Process by which one compound binds to another compound; causing the compounds to precipitate out of the solution, occurs with tetracyclines and calcium.
  110. Means toxic to the kidneys
  111. Presence of crystals, typically precipitated drug molecules in the urine
  112. Means skin plant; refers to fungal agents such as ringworm
  113. Term meaning bone marrow production of blood cells has stopped; occurs with chloramphenicol
  114. Enzyme inhibited by quinolones and prevents nuclear material inside bacteria from being condensed so the bacteria can divide
    DNA gyrase
  115. Drug-induced condition that results in glucosuria without hyperglycemia; associated with tetracyclines
    Fanconi's syndrome
  116. Means decreased number of WBC
  117. Term indicating bacteria can be inhibited or killed by a particular drug
  118. Condition that occurs when an antibiotic given by a mouth kills off beneficial bacteria in the GI tract and allows pathogenic bacteria to proliferate
    Superinfection, suprainfection
  119. Means toxic to the ear; occurs with aminoglycosides
  120. Condition called dry eye because of the decreased function of the tear glands
    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
  121. Process by which bacteria are isolated and susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs determined
    Culture and sensitivity
  122. Microbes that grow under conditions of little or no oxygen
  123. Means produces pus
  124. "Against life" and refers to drugs that kill pathogens
  125. Resistance of bacteria to several related antimicrobial drugs
    Cross resistance
  126. Enzyme produced by bacteria that can disable penicillins and cephalosporins
  127. Bacteria that cannot be killed by a specific drug
  128. Microbes that require oxygen to grow.
  129. Bacteriostatic drugs that maintain concentrations constantly above the MIC and are time dependent
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Lincosamide/clindamycin
    • Erythromycin
    • Sulfonamide
    • Tetracycline
    • Oxytetracycline
  130. Bactericidal drugs that maintain concentrations constantly above the MIC are time dependent
    • Cephalosporins
    • Penicillins
  131. Bactericidal drugs that maintain concentrations high above the MIC but not necessarily constant and are concentration dependent
    • Aminoglycosides 
    • Fluoroquinolones
  132. Group of antimicrobials that can be rendered ineffective by the presence of pus
  133. Group of tetracyclines that are able to penetrate the CNS through the blood-brain barrier, has a longer half life than other tetracyclines and slightly broader spectrum of activity
    Doxycycline and minocycline
  134. Group of antimicrobials that works by inactivating key enzymes involved in the bacteria synthesis of folic acid
  135. Amino-type members of this group; greater spectrum of activity than the natural members of the group
    Amoxicillin and ampicillin
  136. First quinolone to be approved for use in the US. Indicated for use with cats and dogs
  137. B-lactam antibiotics that are naturally resistant against penicillinase.
    Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin and Oxacillin
  138. Expired drugs that can decompose to form nephrotoxic compound that damages proximal tubule of the kidney, prevents reabsorption of sugar from urine
    Tetracycline or oxytetracycline
  139. Group of antibiotics known for being very safe with exception of hypersensitivity reactions
  140. Antifungal used for deep mycoses, causes damage to the kidneys
    Amphotericin B
  141. Readily chelated with calcium and magnesium, dont use orally in nursing animals or allow animal to drink milk or dairy products.
    Tetracycline and oxytertacycline
  142. Added to penicillin G to slow absorption and extend therapeutic concentrations for up to 2 days
  143. Use of this drug in any animal intended for food is grounds for losing vet license, causes aplastic anemia in humans
  144. Group of B-lactam antimicrobials classified by generations
  145. Group taken up by active transport process that is oxygen dependent, ineffective against anaerobes
  146. Group of drugs that work by binding to DNA gyrase and preventing bacteria from replicating
  147. Members of the penicillin group that have the greatest range of activity against bacteria
    Carbenicillin, ticarcillin and piperacillin
  148. Drugs that can cause adult teeth to turn yellow if they were presented in the body when the enamel was developing
  149. Indicated for use in prostatic infections because they penetrate the blood prostate barrier and accumulate within the prostate at concentrations higher than the surrounding plasma
  150. Work by interfering with the development of the bacterial cell wall
    Penicillins and cephalosporins
  151. Sulfonamide drug used for its anti inflammatory characteristics in the colon
    Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
  152. Contraindicated in dogs who are in rapid growth phases because of the possibility of forming small bubble like lesions in the joint cartilage
  153. Causes hypersensitivity reactions, mostly of the skin
  154. Bacteriostatic antimicrobial used most commonly for rickettsial diseases, has 2 classes of drugs, one is hydrophilic and the other lipophilic
  155. Early signs of toxicosis is the presence of casts and increased protein in urine
  156. Treats superficial fungal infections, teratogenic in cats and can produce cleft palates or other skeletal deformities
  157. Most nephrotoxic aminoglycoside
  158. Water soluble tetracyclines, used in livestock
    Tetracycline and oxytertracycline
  159. 2 groups of antibiotics only effective against bacteria that are rapidly dividing
    Penicillins and cephalosporins
  160. IV injection of small doses in horses results in arrhythmias, collapse and death
  161. Added to sulfonamide antibiotics to increase their killing power
    Trimethoprim and ormetoprim
  162. Added to penicillin G to slow its absorption and extend its actions for over 5 days
  163. Associated with KCS
  164. Natural member of this group, B- lactam. Dont give orally
    Penicillin G
  165. Lincosamide that works well against anaerobic bacteria and therefore used to treat deep pyoderma, abcesses and dental infections
    Clindamycin (Antirobe)
  166. Macrolide similar in its chemical structure to a compound called motilin, causes abdominal cramping, pain and diarrhea
  167. Macrolide that has produced death in people who have accidentally or intentionally injected themselves
    Tilmicosin (Micotil)
  168. Bactericidal effective against intestinal protozoa such as giardia, can cause neurological side effects
    Metronidazole (Flagyl)
  169. Drug with excellent ability to penetrate tissues, doesnt cause aplastic anemia
    Florfenicol (Nuflor)
  170. Added with neomycin and polymyxin B to make a widely used antibiotic ointment
  171. Added to amoxicillin to make amoxicillin resistant to the bacterias B-lactamase enzyme
    Clavulanic acid or sulbactam
  172. Group of antifungals that is the treatment of choice for deep mycoses
  173. Capable of causing superinfections in guinea pigs, ferrets, hamsters, and rabbits.
  174. TRUE OR FALSE. Cloxacillin has a broader spectrum of activity than ampicillin
  175. TRUE OR FALSE. If animal has a reaction to penicillin G, amoxicillin should be safe to use
  176. TRUE OR FALSE. 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins are more effective against gram negative bacteria than 1st generation
  177. TRUE OR FALSE. With aminoglycosides the total daily dose should be divided among four doses instead of once daily
  178. TRUE OR FALSE. Aminoglycosides readily penetrate cellular barriers
  179. TRUE OR FALSE. Aminoglycosides are almost exclusively eliminated by the kidneys
  180. TRUE OR FALSE. In aminoglycoside toxicosis the BUN and creatinine concentrations go up before casts and protein begin to appear in urine
  181. TRUE OR FALSE. If animal develops diarrhea while on oral tetracycline antacids, kaolin or Pepto-Bismol are acceptable treatments
  182. TRUE OR FALSE. For susceptible bacteria in the liver or lungs a systemis sulfonamide is preferred over enteric sulfonamide
  183. TRUE OR FALSE. Amphotericin B begins to kill fungal organisms much quicker than ketoconazole or itraconazole
  184. TRUE OR FALSE. When changing grisofulvin dose form from microsized to ultramicrosized the dose would probably have to increase
  185. Why are penicillins with broad spectrum not used to treat bacterial infections of the brain or eye?
    Ionized charged molecules at body pH. Hydrophilic and unable to pass through cellular barrier such as the blood brain barrier or the barrier to the globe of the eye. Drug cannot distribute to these sites.
  186. Ototoxic and nephrotoxic