Pharmacology Dr Brown Ch 10 Antimicrobials

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Pharmacology Dr Brown Ch 10 Antimicrobials
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Pharmacology Dr Brown Ch 10
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  1. Suffix that means inhibits growth
    Static
  2. Antimicrobial produced by microorganisms
    Antibiotics
  3. 5 ways antimicrobials kill bacteria
    • Cell wall
    • Cell membrane permeability
    • Ribosomes
    • Critical enzymes
    • Nucleic acids
  4. Penicillin drugs information
    • Bactericidal
    • Gram + bacteria
    • Interfere with cell wall
    • Inactivated by beta-lactamase
    • Allergic reactions common
  5. Type of cephalosporins
    • Cefadroxil (1st gen)
    • Cephalexin (1st gen)
    • Ceftiofur (3rd gen)
    • Cefpodoxime (3rd gen)
  6. Cephalosporin drugs information
    • Bactericidal
    • 1st gen gram +, 2nd gen gram -
    • Interfere with cell wall
    • Hypersensitivity reaction, vomiting, diarrhea
  7. Types of aminoglycosides
    • Gentamicin
    • Amikacin
    • Neomycin
    • Streptomycin¬†
    • Dihydrostrep
    • Apramycin
    • Tobramycin
  8. What is neomycin good for?
    Oral medication because its not absorbed in the GI tract tissues and is good for infections inside the GI tract.
  9. Aminoglycosides drug information
    • Bactericidal
    • Effective against aerobic bacteria
    • Combines with ribosomes
    • Nephrotoxic and ototoxic
    • Eliminated by kidneys
    • Hydrophilic
  10. Forms of tetracyclines
    • Oxytetracycline
    • Doxycycline
    • Minocycline
  11. Tetracycline drugs information
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Combine with ribosomes
    • Don't give with dairy
    • Cause teeth to yellow
  12. Quinolone drugs information
    • Interfere with DNA gyrase
    • Gram + and -
    • Ineffective against anerobic bacteria
    • Effects joint cartilage
    • Can cause blindness in cats
    • Treats prostate infections
  13. Quinolone drug forms
    • Enrofloxacin
    • Marbofloxacin
    • Orbifloxacin
    • Ciprofloxacin
  14. Sulfonamides drug information
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Bactericidal with trimethoprim
    • Inactivate key enzyme involved with synthesis of folic acid
    • Broad spectrum
    • Side effects: KCS, hypersensitivity, thrombocytopenia, anemia
  15. Sulfonamide drug forms
    • Sulfadiazine
    • Sulfadimethoxine
  16. Lincosamides drug information
    • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal
    • Gram +
    • Protein inhibitor
    • Metabolized by liver
    • Cons: Rabbits, horses, hamsters, ruminants
  17. Lincosamide drug forms
    • Lincomycin
    • Clindamycin
  18. Macrolides drug information
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Inhibit protein synthesis
  19. Macrolides drug forms
    • Erythromycin
    • Tylosin
    • Tilmicosin
    • Azithromycin
  20. Chloramphenicol drug information
    • Bacteriostatic in low doses and bactericidal in high doses
    • Binds to ribosomes and inhibit protein synthesis
    • Causes fatal aplastic anemia
    • Don't use in food animals
  21. Metronidazole drug information
    • Bactericidal
    • Effective against anerobic bacteria
    • Causes CNS side effects
  22. Rifampin drug information
    • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal
    • RNA polymerase inhibitor
  23. Bacitracin drug information
    • Interferes with cell wall
    • Nephrotoxic
    • Eye drop form
  24. Drug used to treat pseudomonas
    Polymyxin B
  25. Drug used to treat UTI
    Nitroforantoin
  26. Amphotericin B drug information
    • Treats deep fungal infections
    • Binds to and damages ergosterol on cell membrane
    • Fungicidal and fungistatic
    • Side effects: Nephrotoxic, fever, anorexia
  27. Imidazole derivatives (Azoles) drug information
    • Interfere with cell membrane
    • 5-10 days before it becomes fungicidal
    • Side effects: GI and hepatotoxic
  28. Griseofulvin drug information
    • Fungistatic
    • Treats superficial fungus
    • Caution with cats (teratogenic)
    • Side effects: Anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea
  29. Drug concentration at the lower end of the therapeutic range for the antibiotic; concentration of drug at which bacteria are inhibited.
    Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
  30. Means decrease in number of platelets
    Thrombocytopenia
  31. Disease-causing agents
    Pathogens
  32. Range of bacteria that can be killed by a particular antimicorbial
    Spectrum of activity
  33. Traces of leftover drug in the tissue long after the antimicorbial drug has been stopped
    Residue
  34. Chemical structure found in penicillin and cephalosporins; can be the site of action for some bacterial enzymes
    B-lactam ring
  35. Having an allergic reaction to a drug
    Hypersensitivity
  36. Process by which one compound binds to another compound; causing the compounds to precipitate out of the solution, occurs with tetracyclines and calcium.
    Chelate
  37. Means toxic to the kidneys; occurs with aminoglycosides
    Nephrotoxicosis
  38. Presence of crystals, typically precipitated drug molecules in the urine
    Crystalluria
  39. Means skin plant; refers to fungal agents such as ringworm
    Dermatophyte
  40. Term meaning bone marrow production of blood cells has stopped; occurs with chloramphenicol
    Myelosuppression
  41. Enzyme inhibited by quinolones and prevents nuclear material inside bacteria from being condensed so the bacteria can divide
    DNA gyrase
  42. Drug-induced condition that results in glucosuria without hyperglycemia; associated with tetracyclines
    Fanconi's syndrome
  43. Means "keep bacteria from growing or multiplying"
    Bacteriostatic
  44. Means decreased number of WBC
    Leukopenia
  45. Term indicating bacteria can be inhibited or killed by a particular drug
    Sensitive
  46. Condition that occurs when an antibiotic given by a mouth kills off beneficial bacteria in the GI tract and allows pathogenic bacteria to proliferate
    Superinfection, suprainfection
  47. Means toxic to the ear; occurs with aminoglycosides
    Ototoxic
  48. Condition called dry eye because of the decreased function of the tear glands
    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
  49. Process by which bacteria are isolated and susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs determined
    Culture and sensitivity
  50. Microbes that grow under conditions of little or no oxygen
    Anaerobic
  51. Means produces pus
    Pyogenic
  52. "Against life" and refers to drugs that kill pathogens
    Antibiotic
  53. Resistance of bacteria to several related antimicrobial drugs
    Cross resistance
  54. Enzyme produced by bacteria that can disable penicillins and cephalosporins
    B-lactamase
  55. Bacteria that cannot be killed by a specific drug
    Resistant
  56. Microbes that require oxygen to grow
    Aerobic
  57. Group of antimicrobials that can be rendered ineffective by the presence of pus
    Aminoglycosides
  58. Group of tetracyclines that are able to penetrate the CNS through the blood-brain barrier, has a longer half life than other tetracyclines and slightly broader spectrum of activity
    Doxycycline and minocycline
  59. Group of antimicrobials that works by inactivating key enzymes involved in the bacteria synthesis of folic acid
    Sulfonamides
  60. Amino-type members of this group; greater spectrum of activity than the natural members of the group
    Amoxicillin and ampicillin
  61. First quinolone to be approved for use in the US. Indicated for use with cats and dogs
    Enrofloxacin
  62. B-lactam antibiotics that are naturally resistant against penicillinase.
    Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin and Oxacillin
  63. Expired drugs that can decompose to form nephrotoxic compound that damages proximal tubule of the kidney, prevents reabsorption of sugar from urine
    Tetracycline or oxytetracycline
  64. Group of antibiotics known for being very safe with exception of hypersensitivity reactions
    Penicillins
  65. Antifungal used for deep mycoses, causes damage to the kidneys
    Amphotericin B
  66. Readily chelated with calcium and magnesium, dont use orally in nursing animals or allow animal to drink milk or dairy products.
    Tetracycline and oxytertacycline
  67. Added to penicillin G to slow absorption and extend therapeutic concentrations for up to 2 days
    Procaine
  68. Use of this drug in any animal intended for food is grounds for losing vet license, causes aplastic anemia in humans
    Chloramphenicol
  69. Group of B-lactam antimicrobials classified by generations
    Cephalosporins
  70. Group taken up by active transport process that is oxygen dependent, ineffective against anaerobes
    Aminoglycosides
  71. Group of drugs that work by binding to DNA gyrase and preventing bacteria from replicating
    Quinolones
  72. Members of the penicillin group that have the greatest range of activity against bacteria
    Carbenicillin, ticarcillin and piperacillin
  73. Drugs that can cause adult teeth to turn yellow if they were presented in the body when the enamel was developing
    Tetracycline
  74. Drug group that are ototoxic and nephrotoxic
    Aminoglycosides
  75. Indicated for use in prostatic infections because they penetrate the blood prostate barrier and accumulate within the prostate at concentrations higher than the surrounding plasma
    Quinolones
  76. Work by interfering with the development of the bacterial cell wall
    Penicillins and cephalosporins
  77. Sulfonamide drug used for its anti inflammatory characteristics in the colon
    Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
  78. Contraindicated in dogs who are in rapid growth phases because of the possibility of forming small bubble like lesions in the joint cartilage
    Quinolones
  79. Causes hypersensitivity reactions, mostly of the skin
    Sulfonamides
  80. Bacteriostatic antimicrobial used most commonly for rickettsial diseases, has 2 classes of drugs, one is hydrophilic and the other lipophilic
    Tetracyclines
  81. Early signs of toxicosis is the presence of casts and increased protein in urine
    Aminoglycosides
  82. Treats superficial fungal infections, teratogenic in cats and can produce cleft palates or other skeletal deformities
    Griseofulvin
  83. Most nephrotoxic aminoglycoside
    Neomycin
  84. Water soluble tetracyclines, used in livestock
    Tetracycline and oxytertracycline
  85. 2 groups of antibiotics only effective against bacteria that are rapidly dividing
    Penicillins and cephalosporins
  86. IV injection of small doses in horses results in arrhythmias, collapse and death
    Doxycycline
  87. Added to sulfonamide antibiotics to increase their killing power
    Trimethoprim and ormetoprim
  88. Added to penicillin G to slow its absorption and extend its actions for over 5 days
    Benzathine
  89. Associated with KCS
    Sulfonamides
  90. Natural member of this group, B- lactam. Dont give orally
    Penicillin G
  91. Lincosamide that works well against anaerobic bacteria and therefore used to treat deep pyoderma, abcesses and dental infections
    Clindamycin (Antirobe)
  92. Macrolide similar in its chemical structure to a compound called motilin, causes abdominal cramping, pain and diarrhea
    Erythromycin
  93. Macrolide that has produced death in people who have accidentally or intentionally injected themselves
    Tilmicosin (Micotil)
  94. Bactericidal effective against intestinal protozoa such as giardia, can cause neurological side effects
    Metronidazole (Flagyl)
  95. Drug with excellent ability to penetrate tissues, doesnt cause aplastic anemia
    Florfenicol (Nuflor)
  96. Added with neomycin and polymyxin B to make a widely used antibiotic ointment
    Bacitracin
  97. Added to amoxicillin to make amoxicillin resistant to the bacterias B-lactamase enzyme
    Clavulanic acid or sulbactam
  98. Group of antifungals that is the treatment of choice for deep mycoses
    Imidazoles
  99. Capable of causing superinfections in guinea pigs, ferrets, hamsters, and rabbits.
    Penicillins
  100. TRUE OR FALSE. Cloxacillin has a broader spectrum of activity than ampicillin
    False
  101. TRUE OR FALSE. If animal has a reaction to penicillin G, amoxicillin should be safe to use
    False
  102. TRUE OR FALSE. 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins are more effective against gram negative bacteria than 1st generation
    True
  103. TRUE OR FALSE. With aminoglycosides the total daily dose should be divided among four doses instead of once daily
    False
  104. TRUE OR FALSE. Aminoglycosides readily penetrate cellular barriers
    False
  105. TRUE OR FALSE. Aminoglycosides are almost exclusively eliminated by the kidneys
    True
  106. TRUE OR FALSE. In aminoglycoside toxicosis the BUN and creatinine concentrations go up before casts and protein begin to appear in urine
    False
  107. TRUE OR FALSE. If animal develops diarrhea while on oral tetracycline antacids, kaolin or Pepto-Bismol are acceptable treatments
    False
  108. TRUE OR FALSE. For susceptible bacteria in the liver or lungs a systemis sulfonamide is preferred over enteric sulfonamide
    True
  109. TRUE OR FALSE. Amphotericin B begins to kill fungal organisms much quicker than ketoconazole or itraconazole
    True
  110. TRUE OR FALSE. When changing grisofulvin dose form from microsized to ultramicrosized the dose would probably have to increase
    False
  111. Why are penicillins with broad spectrum not used to treat bacterial infections of the brain or eye?
    Ionized charged molecules at body pH. Hydrophilic and unable to pass through cellular barrier such as the blood brain barrier or the barrier to the globe of the eye. Drug cannot distribute to these sites.
  112. Ototoxic and nephrotoxic
    Aminoglycosides

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