Surgically puncture tympanic membrane to decrease pressure and insert medicine, ear drum grows back in 21-28 days.
Other forms of quinolones
Difloxacin hydrochloride (Dicural)
Side effects of quinolones
Affects developing joint cartilage
Veraflox used to treat what?
Treat skin infections in cats caused by pasteurella, strep and staph.
Metronidazole effective against what
Giardia, entameba, trichomonas, balantidium and anaerobic bacteria
What is the most common antibiotic used in cats?
Metronidazole used to treat what?
Anti-inflammatory effect on the bowel. Often used with corticosteroids with inflammatory bowel disease in cats and periodontal disease.
Microbiocidal drugs that penetrate the CNS
Microbiostatic drugs that penetrate the CNS
2 types of fungal infections
Superficial: affecting skin and mucous membranes, referred to as dermatophytes
Systemic: Affecting blood, lungs, skeleton, lymph nodes or CNS
What percentage is microsporum canis is felines
What percentage is microsporum canis in canines
Fungal spore in the soil
Amphotericin B information
Can be fungistatic or fungicidal.
Proprietary name: Fungizone
Mixed with D5W given IV.
Breaks down membrane wall for early death
Ketoconazole and miconazole information
Topical used in humans.
Effects testosterone production in males and normal cortisol levels from adrenal gland
Ketoconazole and miconazole
What does Miconazole nitrate treat?
Dermatophytes and yeasts
What does sulconazole nitrate treat?
Oral and topical
Used in avain species
Most commonly used to treat Candidas albicans (Candidiasis)
Effective against ringworm
What is the most common topical anti fungal drug
Anti viral drugs kill by what two methods?
Cells invaded by viruses and produce chemical called interferon and interferes with ability of virus to cause disease by preventing their replication within the host (static)
Group of enzymes becomes activated during infections. Complement binds to invading viral cell wall and produces small holes in membrane rupturing cells (Lysis)
Anti viral drugs used to treat what?
Optic viral infections and non-neoplastic feline leukemia virus
Examples of anti viral drugs
Drug concentration at the lower end of the therapeutic range for the antibiotic; concentration of drug at which bacteria are inhibited.
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
Means decrease in number of platelets
Range of bacteria that can be killed by a particular antimicorbial
Spectrum of activity
Traces of leftover drug in the tissue long after the antimicorbial drug has been stopped
Chemical structure found in penicillin and cephalosporins; can be the site of action for some bacterial enzymes
Having an allergic reaction to a drug
Process by which one compound binds to another compound; causing the compounds to precipitate out of the solution, occurs with tetracyclines and calcium.
Means toxic to the kidneys
Presence of crystals, typically precipitated drug molecules in the urine
Means skin plant; refers to fungal agents such as ringworm
Term meaning bone marrow production of blood cells has stopped; occurs with chloramphenicol
Enzyme inhibited by quinolones and prevents nuclear material inside bacteria from being condensed so the bacteria can divide
Drug-induced condition that results in glucosuria without hyperglycemia; associated with tetracyclines
Means decreased number of WBC
Term indicating bacteria can be inhibited or killed by a particular drug
Condition that occurs when an antibiotic given by a mouth kills off beneficial bacteria in the GI tract and allows pathogenic bacteria to proliferate
Means toxic to the ear; occurs with aminoglycosides
Condition called dry eye because of the decreased function of the tear glands
Process by which bacteria are isolated and susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs determined
Culture and sensitivity
Microbes that grow under conditions of little or no oxygen
Means produces pus
"Against life" and refers to drugs that kill pathogens
Resistance of bacteria to several related antimicrobial drugs
Enzyme produced by bacteria that can disable penicillins and cephalosporins
Bacteria that cannot be killed by a specific drug
Microbes that require oxygen to grow.
Bacteriostatic drugs that maintain concentrations constantly above the MIC and are time dependent
Bactericidal drugs that maintain concentrations constantly above the MIC are time dependent
Bactericidal drugs that maintain concentrations high above the MIC but not necessarily constant and are concentration dependent
Group of antimicrobials that can be rendered ineffective by the presence of pus
Group of tetracyclines that are able to penetrate the CNS through the blood-brain barrier, has a longer half life than other tetracyclines and slightly broader spectrum of activity
Doxycycline and minocycline
Group of antimicrobials that works by inactivating key enzymes involved in the bacteria synthesis of folic acid
Amino-type members of this group; greater spectrum of activity than the natural members of the group
Amoxicillin and ampicillin
First quinolone to be approved for use in the US. Indicated for use with cats and dogs
B-lactam antibiotics that are naturally resistant against penicillinase.
Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin and Oxacillin
Expired drugs that can decompose to form nephrotoxic compound that damages proximal tubule of the kidney, prevents reabsorption of sugar from urine
Tetracycline or oxytetracycline
Group of antibiotics known for being very safe with exception of hypersensitivity reactions
Antifungal used for deep mycoses, causes damage to the kidneys
Readily chelated with calcium and magnesium, dont use orally in nursing animals or allow animal to drink milk or dairy products.
Tetracycline and oxytertacycline
Added to penicillin G to slow absorption and extend therapeutic concentrations for up to 2 days
Use of this drug in any animal intended for food is grounds for losing vet license, causes aplastic anemia in humans
Group of B-lactam antimicrobials classified by generations
Group taken up by active transport process that is oxygen dependent, ineffective against anaerobes
Group of drugs that work by binding to DNA gyrase and preventing bacteria from replicating
Members of the penicillin group that have the greatest range of activity against bacteria
Carbenicillin, ticarcillin and piperacillin
Drugs that can cause adult teeth to turn yellow if they were presented in the body when the enamel was developing
Indicated for use in prostatic infections because they penetrate the blood prostate barrier and accumulate within the prostate at concentrations higher than the surrounding plasma
Work by interfering with the development of the bacterial cell wall
Penicillins and cephalosporins
Sulfonamide drug used for its anti inflammatory characteristics in the colon
Contraindicated in dogs who are in rapid growth phases because of the possibility of forming small bubble like lesions in the joint cartilage
Causes hypersensitivity reactions, mostly of the skin
Bacteriostatic antimicrobial used most commonly for rickettsial diseases, has 2 classes of drugs, one is hydrophilic and the other lipophilic
Early signs of toxicosis is the presence of casts and increased protein in urine
Treats superficial fungal infections, teratogenic in cats and can produce cleft palates or other skeletal deformities
Most nephrotoxic aminoglycoside
Water soluble tetracyclines, used in livestock
Tetracycline and oxytertracycline
2 groups of antibiotics only effective against bacteria that are rapidly dividing
Penicillins and cephalosporins
IV injection of small doses in horses results in arrhythmias, collapse and death
Added to sulfonamide antibiotics to increase their killing power
Trimethoprim and ormetoprim
Added to penicillin G to slow its absorption and extend its actions for over 5 days
Associated with KCS
Natural member of this group, B- lactam. Dont give orally
Lincosamide that works well against anaerobic bacteria and therefore used to treat deep pyoderma, abcesses and dental infections
Macrolide similar in its chemical structure to a compound called motilin, causes abdominal cramping, pain and diarrhea
Macrolide that has produced death in people who have accidentally or intentionally injected themselves
Bactericidal effective against intestinal protozoa such as giardia, can cause neurological side effects
Drug with excellent ability to penetrate tissues, doesnt cause aplastic anemia
Added with neomycin and polymyxin B to make a widely used antibiotic ointment
Added to amoxicillin to make amoxicillin resistant to the bacterias B-lactamase enzyme
Clavulanic acid or sulbactam
Group of antifungals that is the treatment of choice for deep mycoses
Capable of causing superinfections in guinea pigs, ferrets, hamsters, and rabbits.
TRUE OR FALSE. Cloxacillin has a broader spectrum of activity than ampicillin
TRUE OR FALSE. If animal has a reaction to penicillin G, amoxicillin should be safe to use
TRUE OR FALSE. 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins are more effective against gram negative bacteria than 1st generation
TRUE OR FALSE. With aminoglycosides the total daily dose should be divided among four doses instead of once daily
TRUE OR FALSE. Aminoglycosides readily penetrate cellular barriers
TRUE OR FALSE. Aminoglycosides are almost exclusively eliminated by the kidneys
TRUE OR FALSE. In aminoglycoside toxicosis the BUN and creatinine concentrations go up before casts and protein begin to appear in urine
TRUE OR FALSE. If animal develops diarrhea while on oral tetracycline antacids, kaolin or Pepto-Bismol are acceptable treatments
TRUE OR FALSE. For susceptible bacteria in the liver or lungs a systemis sulfonamide is preferred over enteric sulfonamide
TRUE OR FALSE. Amphotericin B begins to kill fungal organisms much quicker than ketoconazole or itraconazole
TRUE OR FALSE. When changing grisofulvin dose form from microsized to ultramicrosized the dose would probably have to increase
Why are penicillins with broad spectrum not used to treat bacterial infections of the brain or eye?
Ionized charged molecules at body pH. Hydrophilic and unable to pass through cellular barrier such as the blood brain barrier or the barrier to the globe of the eye. Drug cannot distribute to these sites.