LAB BIO&251: Systems and Directions
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- Major Organs: Skin, hair, sweat glands, nails
- Functions: Protects environmental hazards, Helps regulate body temp, provides sensory information
- Major Organs: Bones, cartilages, associated ligaments, bone marrow
- Functions: Provides support and protection for other tissues, stores calcium and other minerals, forms blood cells
- Major Organs: Skeletal muscles and associated tenodons
- Functions: Provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, generates heat that helps maintain other body temp.
- Major Organs: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs
- Functions: Directs immediate response to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
- Major Organs: Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissues in other systems
- Functions: Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, controls many structural and functional changes during development
- Major Organs: Heart, blood vessels
- Functions: Distributes blood, cells, water, and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen and carbon dioxide; distrubtes heat and assists in the control of body temperature
- Major Organs: Spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and tonsils
- Functions: Defends against infection and disease, returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
- Major Organs: Nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli
- Functions: Delivers air to the alveoli (sites in the lungs where the gas exchange occurs), provides oxygen to the bloodstream, removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream, produces sounds of communication
- Major Organs: Teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
- Functions: Processes and digests food, absorbs and conserves water, absorbs nutrients, stores energy reserves
- Major Organs: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
- Functions: Excretes waste products from the blood, controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, regulates blood ion concentration and pH
Male Reproductive System
- Major Organs: Testes, epididymus, ductus differentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotum
- Functions: Produces male sex cells (sperm), seminal fluids and hormones; sexual intercourse
Female Reproductive System
- Major Organs: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands
- Functions: Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones, supports developing embryo from conception to delivery, provides milk to nourish a newborn infant, sexual intercourse
Planes and Sections
- Frontal Plane: Separates the body into anertior or ventral (front) and posterior or dorsal (back) portions.
- Midsagittal Plane: Sagittal separates into right and left, but MIDsagittal goes directly through themiddle, and PARAsagittal separates into unequal right and left.
- Transverse Plane: Separates the body into inferior (lower) and superior (upper) portions.
Lateral and Medial
- Lateral: Away from the midline
- Medial: Toward the midline
Proximal and Distal
- Proximal: Toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk.
- I.E. The shoulder is proximal to the wrist.
- Distal: Away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk.
- I.E. The fingers are distal to the wrist.
Superficial and Deep
- Superficial: At, near, or relatively close to the body surface.
- I.E. The skin is superficial to underlying structures.
- Deep: Toward the interior of the body; further from the surface.
- I.E. The bone of the thigh is deep to the surrounding skeletal muscles.
Cranial (Cephalic) and Caudal
- Cranial (Cephalic): Toward the head
- I.E. The cranial nerves are in the head.
- Caudal: Toward the tail (coccyx)
- I.E. Fused caudal vertebrae form the skeleton of the tail.
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