LAB BIO&251: Systems and Directions

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LAB BIO&251: Systems and Directions
2015-10-07 19:48:56

Information from the first lab.
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  1. Integumentary System
    • Major Organs: Skin, hair, sweat glands, nails
    • Functions: Protects environmental hazards, Helps regulate body temp, provides sensory information
  2. Skeletal System
    • Major Organs: Bones, cartilages, associated ligaments, bone marrow
    • Functions: Provides support and protection for other tissues, stores calcium and other minerals, forms blood cells
  3. Muscular System
    • Major Organs: Skeletal muscles and associated tenodons
    • Functions: Provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, generates heat that helps maintain other body temp.
  4. Nervous System
    • Major Organs: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs
    • Functions: Directs immediate response to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
  5. Enodcrine System
    • Major Organs: Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissues in other systems
    • Functions: Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, controls many structural and functional changes during development
  6. Cardiovascular System
    • Major Organs: Heart, blood vessels
    • Functions: Distributes blood, cells, water, and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen and carbon dioxide; distrubtes heat and assists in the control of body temperature
  7. Lymphatic System
    • Major Organs: Spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and tonsils
    • Functions: Defends against infection and disease, returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
  8. Respiratory System
    • Major Organs: Nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli
    • Functions: Delivers air to the alveoli (sites in the lungs where the gas exchange occurs), provides oxygen to the bloodstream, removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream, produces sounds of communication
  9. Digestive System
    • Major Organs: Teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
    • Functions: Processes and digests food, absorbs and conserves water, absorbs nutrients, stores energy reserves
  10. Urinary System
    • Major Organs: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    • Functions: Excretes waste products from the blood, controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, regulates blood ion concentration and pH
  11. Male Reproductive System
    • Major Organs: Testes, epididymus, ductus differentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotum
    • Functions: Produces male sex cells (sperm), seminal fluids and hormones; sexual intercourse
  12. Female Reproductive System
    • Major Organs: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands
    • Functions: Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones, supports developing embryo from conception to delivery, provides milk to nourish a newborn infant, sexual intercourse
  13. Planes and Sections
    • Frontal Plane: Separates the body into anertior or ventral (front) and posterior or dorsal (back) portions.
    • Midsagittal Plane: Sagittal separates into right and left, but MIDsagittal goes directly through themiddle, and PARAsagittal separates into unequal right and left.
    • Transverse Plane: Separates the body into inferior (lower) and superior (upper) portions.
  14. Lateral and Medial
    • Lateral: Away from the midline
    • Medial: Toward the midline
  15. Proximal and Distal
    • Proximal: Toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk.
    • I.E. The shoulder is proximal to the wrist.
    • Distal: Away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk.
    • I.E. The fingers are distal to the wrist.
  16. Superficial and Deep
    • Superficial: At, near, or relatively close to the body surface.
    • I.E. The skin is superficial to underlying structures.
    • Deep: Toward the interior of the body; further from the surface.
    • I.E. The bone of the thigh is deep to the surrounding skeletal muscles.
  17. Cranial (Cephalic) and Caudal
    • Cranial (Cephalic): Toward the head
    • I.E. The cranial nerves are in the head.
    • Caudal: Toward the tail (coccyx)
    • I.E. Fused caudal vertebrae form the skeleton of the tail.