Chapter 6

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Chapter 6
2015-09-30 18:15:57

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  1. ________________________ is the single most important component of health related fitness.
    Cardiorespiratory endurance
  2. Aerobic exercise is especially important in preventing ________________ disease.
  3. Hypokinetic diseases are illnesses related to a lack of ______________
    motion/ lack of physical activity
  4. Hypokinetic diseases include:
    hypertension, heart disease, chronic low back pain, and obesity
  5. Air sacs in the lungs where oxygen is taken up and carbon dioxide(produced by the body) is released from the blood.
  6. ________________ is the iron containing compound, found in red blood cells (RBCs) that transports oxygen
  7. _____________    _____________ is a high energy chemical compound that the body uses for energy.
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  8. ___________ _________ is the amount of oxygen the human body uses
    Oxygen uptake
  9. __________ exercise describes exercise that requires oxygen to produce the necessary energy (ATP) to carry out the activity
  10. ____________ exercise describes exercise that DOES NOT require oxygen to produce the necessary energy (ATP) to carry out the activity
  11. Maximum amount of oxygen the body is able to utilize per minute of physical activity, commonly expressed in milliliters per kilogram per minute (mL/kg/min) *this is the best indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness
    VO2 Max (Maximal oxygen uptake)
  12. Heart rate after a person has been sitting quietly for 15-20 minutes
    Resting Heart Rate (RHR expressed in beats per minute/bpm)
  13. Benefits of aerobic training include:
    • higher VO2 Max
    •  increase in oxygen carrying capability of the blood
    •  decrease in RHR
    •  lower heart rate at given workloads
    •  increase in number, size, and capacity of mitochondria (cellular power plant)
    •  increase in number of functional capillaries
    •  faster recovery time
    •  lower blood pressure (BP) and lipids
    •  increase in fat burning enzymes
  14. __________ output is the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
  15. ___________ ___________ is the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one beat
    Stroke volume
  16. _______________ are the smallest blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood to the tissues in the body.
  17. ____________ are the structures within cells where energy transformation takes place
  18. ______________ is the load (or intensity) placed on the body during physical activity
  19. ___________ time is the amount of time the body takes to return to resting levels after exercise
  20. ___________ plays a crucial role in how each person responds to and improves after beginning an exercise program
  21. Individuals who exhibit improvements in fitness as a result of exercise training are referred to as ___________________
  22. Individuals who exhibit little or no improvements in improvements in fitness as compared to others who undergo the same training program are referred to as _____________
  23. Training concept holding that genetics plays a major role in individual responses to exercise training and these differences must be considered when designing programs for different people is referred to as the principle of _______________
  24. ___________ heart rate is the highest heart rate for a person, related primarily to age.
    maximal (equation for MHR is 206.9 -(.67 x age))
  25. __________ is a type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement with the intent of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness
  26. The amount of oxygen removed from the blood as determined by the difference in oxygen content between arterial and venous blood is ______________
    Arterial-venous oxygen difference
  27. The acronym FITT-VP is used to describe the cardiorespiratory exercise prescription variables:
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Time(duration)
    • Type(mode)
    • Volume
    • Progression
  28. __________ is in cardiorespiratory exercise, how hard a person has to train to improve or maintain fitness
  29. CR exercise that requires an intensity level of approximately 70% of capacity is classified as _____________ exercise
  30. Recommended training intensity range, in terms of exercise heart rate, to obtain adequate cardiorespiratory endurance development is known as _____________ ____________ zone
    cardiorespiratory training
  31. H-PAPE Perceived exertion vs. Training Intensity
    • Light -40%
    • Moderate -50%
    • Somewhat hard - 60%
    • Vigorous - 70%
    • Hard - 80%
    • Very Hard - 90%
    • All-out effort - 100%
  32. H-PAPE stands for:
    Hoeger- Physical Activity Perceived Exertion scale
  33. Starting a workout slowly is referred to as ______________
  34. Tapering off an exercise session slowly is _______________
  35. Number of times a person engages in exercise per week is known as the ____________
  36. How quickly an individual progresses through an exercise program depends on the person's:
    health status, fitness status, exercise tolerance, training responses, and exercise program goals
  37. __________ volume is a relatively new concept that is the product of frequency, intensity, and duration
  38. Most Americans spend more than ______ of their waking hours sitting.
    half (1/2)
  39. Training volume is also used as an indicator of ____________ exercise
  40. _________ is the rate of energy expenditure at rest
    Metabolic equivalent (MET)
  41. 1 MET is the equivalent of a VO2 of ________mL/kg/min
  42. The ________ test is perhaps the easiest test to administer
    1.5 mile run
  43. The _________ test can be used by individuals who are unable to run because of low fitness levels or injuries
    1 mile walk test
  44. Five exercise tests used to assess the CR fitness in this chapter are:
    the 1.5 Mile Run test, the 1 Mile Walk test, the Step test, the Astrand-Rhyming (bicycle) test, and the 12 Minute Swim test
  45. Because of its simplicity and practicality, the _________________ test is one of the most popular tests used to estimate VO2 Max in the laboratory setting.
  46. Because individual doesn't have to support their own body weight while riding the bicycle, ___________ individuals and those with ___________ problems in their lower extremities can take this test
    overweight individuals and those with joint problems in their lower extremities
  47. A swimming test is only practical for those who:
    are taking part in a swimming program or cannot perform any of the other tests
  48. Readiness for exercise: you are evaluated in four categories, they are:
    Mastery (self control), attitude, health, and commitment
  49. Heart rate ___________ increase the accuracy of heat rate assessment
  50. Unconditioned individuals (those in the poor CR fitness category) and older adults should start at the a ____ to ____ percent training intensity (TI)
  51. For persons in the "fair" fitness training is recommended between ____ to ____% TI (TI/Training Intensity)
    40 to 50%
  52. For those in the "average" category a ____ to ____% TI is recommended
    50 to 60%
  53. Active and fit people in the "good" category should exercise between ____ to ____% TI
    60 to 70%
  54. People in the active "excellent" fitness category can exercise at higher TIs between ____ and ____%
    70 to 90%
  55. _________ intensity exercise programs yield higher improvements in VO2 max than do moderate intensity exercise programs.
  56. The form or type of exercise is known as the __________
  57. Aerobic exercise has to involve the major muscle groups of the body, and it has to be ___________ and ___________
    rhythmic and continuous
  58. ___________  ____________ can significantly reduce the incidence of injuries
    Strength conditioning
  59. The general recommendation is that a person exercise between ____ and ____ minutes per session.
    20 and 60
  60. In the latest guidelines the ASCM recommends at least ____ minutes of stretching exercises performed immediately following the warm-up phase or after the cool down phase
    10 minutes
  61. The Surgeon General states that no one, including older adults, is too old to enjoy the benefits of regular ________  ________
    Physical Activity
  62. Ideally a person should engage in physical activity _____ or ______ times a week
    six to seven
  63. The highest percentage of the VO2 max at which an individual can exercise(maximal steady state) for an extended time without accumulating significant amounts of lactic acid (accumulation of lactic acid forces an individual to slow down the exercise intensity or stop altogether) is:
    Anaerobic threshold
  64. The most difficult challenge about exercise is to _____  ______ once you start
    keep going
  65. As a rule, after ____ to ____ hours of aerobic inactivity the CR system starts to lose some of its capacity
    48 to 72 hours
  66. The human body burns _____ calories for each liter of oxygen consumed
  67. The first _____ weeks of any exercise program are critical.
  68. To develop the CR system, the heart muscle has to be _____________ like any other muscle in the human body
  69. Training Interval(TI) = (HRR x respective numbers (.30, .40, .50, .60, .70, .80, .90) + RHR
    e.g. 30% TI= (125 x .30) + 68= 106 bpm
  70. All increases in the FITT-VP variables should be gradual to minimize risk of __________ and ___________
    overtraining and injuries