Community test 3

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Community test 3
2015-09-30 20:07:31
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  1. Who was the first to exert political pressure on the government?
  2. What are the three key things about Florence?
    • Transformed military health & knew value of data in influencing policy 
    • Knew how to use support of followers, colleagues, and policy makers
    • Collected and analyzed data about health services and outcomes-now a critical element of public health
  3. Who was an ardenent and eloquent for abolishing slavery and supporting women's rights?
    sojourner turner
  4. Three things about Sojourner
    • Her work helped transform the racist and sexist policies that limited the health and wellbeing of African Americans and women
    • Fought for human rights
    • Lobbied for federal funds to train nurses and Drs
  5. Who was responsible for organizing relief efforts during the Civil War?
    Clara Barton
  6. Three thinks about Clara Barton
    • Persuaded Congress to ratify the Treaty of Geneva 
    • Founded American Red Cross
    • Developed forethought of U.S being Good samaritans
  7. The ratification of the treaty of Geneva allowed for
    the red cross to perform humanitarian efforts in times of peace
  8. Who was a prolific writer and political activist?
    Lavina Dock
  9. Three things about Lavina Dock
    • Waged campain for legislation to allow nurses to control nursing profession instead of Drs
    • She founded the politically active American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses with Isabel Hamptom Robb and Mary Adelaide Nutting
    • Active in sufferage movement, advocating that nurses support the womens rights to vote
  10. What later became the National League for Nursing?
    American Society of SUperindentents of Training Schools for Nurses

    Wrote the first text book
  11. who's political activism and vision were shaped by feminist values?
    Lillian Wald
  12. Four things about Lillian Wald
    • Recognized connections b/w health and social condition
    • Was the driving force behind the Children's Bureau
    • Appeared frequently at White House to participate in development of national and international policy
    • Insisted that all classes on Henry Street were racially integrated
  13. who worked to develop nursing in rural KY, establishing the Frontier Nursing Service
    Mary Brechenridge
  14. Mary Breckenridge's focus
    Mother-baby and primary care
  15. Who was a Native American nurse who walked from reservation to reservation, working to improve health services for this population?
    Susie Walking Bear Yellowtail
  16. Who established the Native American Nurses Association?
    Susie Walking Bear Yellowtail
  17. Who is responsible for the American Hospice Movement?
    Florence Wald
  18. nursing leader in establishing hospital care in the U.S.- modeled after similar services offered in the U.K
    Florence Wald
  19. Who was a nurse midwife who crusaded for freestanding birth centeres in the US
    Dr. Ruth Watson Lubic
  20. Two things about Dr. RUth Watson Lubic
    After developing Maternity Center Association in New York, she expanded the model to Washington, DC – where infant mortality rate was twice the national average. Was awarded MacArthur Fellowship Grant & Institute of Medicine’s Lienhard Award
  21. denotes a course of action to be followed by government, buisness, or institutions to obtain a desired effect
  22. Policy encompasses the choices that a society, segment of society, or organization makes regarding
    its goals, prioritites, and the ways it allocates its resources to attain these goals
  23. Policy choices refelct values, beliefs, and attitudes of
    those designing the policy
  24. Example of policy
    local effort to prevent sale of tobacco or alcohol to minors
  25. denotes precepts and standards formed by gment bodies that are fundamental concern to the state and whole of the general public
    public policy
  26. Public policy involves
    study of specific policy problems & governmental responses to them
  27. Public policy overlaps
    comparative politics in study of comparative public policy w/ international relations in study of foreign policy & national security & ethics
  28. a statement of a decision regarding a goal in health care & a plan for achieving that goal
    health policy
  29. example of health policy
    to prevent epidemic, a program for inoculation a population is developed & implemented & priorities and values underlying health resources allocation are determined.
  30. specifies nursing leadership that influences & shapes health policy & nursing practice
    nursing policy
  31. Nursing and leadership are shaped by
    the impact of policies
  32. Effective nursing leadership is a
    vehicle thru which both nursing & health policy can be influenced & shaped
  33. rules that govern worksites & identify the institution’s goals, operation, & tx of employees.
    institutional policies
  34. rules that govern organizations & their positions on issues w/ which the organization is concerned
    organizational policies
  35. policy between individuals and communities
    social policy
  36. Social policy is a branch of public policy that
    advances social welfare and enhances participation in society
  37. Social protection usually depends on
    contributory social insurance schemes to which only regular job holders have access – particularly evident w/ respect to health care system & Social Security retirement benefits
  38. departments of executive branch w/ authority to implement or administer particular legislation
    administrative agencies
  39. rules of conduct or procedure; result from combo of legislation, judicial decisions, constitutional decisions, & administrative actions.
  40. focuses on legal issues in public health practice & on public health effects of legal practice
    public health law
  41. 3 major areas practice in public health law
    • police power
    • disease and injury prevention
    • law of populations
  42. sanitary standards and regulation for purpose of promoting and preserving the community's health
    • statues
    • ordinances
    • codes
  43. Any law passed by legislative body at federal, state, or local level
  44. common law example
    Any law passed by legislative body at federal, state, or local level
  45. Regulation example
    reporting communicable diseases to state and local health departments and then to the CDC
  46. treaty example
    mulitlateral treat: treaty to eliminate all forms of dicrimination against women
  47. Public health laws are legistlation, regulations, and court decisians enacted by the government at what levels?
    • federal
    • state
    • local
  48. Social justice
    everyone has access to health care
  49. Policy is based on _________ and the first step is
    • values
    • identifying the issue
  50. Why is it difficult to change policy?
    because it requires a serious reallocation of funds
  51. policy choices reflect the values, beliefs and attitudes of who?
    those designing the policy
  52. Public health policy are decisions made by who?
    legislative, executive, or judicial branches on 1 and 2 levels of gov

    local, state, federal
  53. Public health policy influences health care through
    monitoring, production, provision, and financing of health care services
  54. what determines health resource allocation?
    public health policy
  55. Public health policy authority is placed where?
    on states
  56. What is a major deciding factor in public health policy?
  57. Public health policy compliance with federal program standards is?
    voluntary but impacts revenue
  58. Public health policy needs are determined by
    • voting shifts
    • electoral realignment
    • term limits
  59. Includes employers, professional organizations, nonprofit organizations, for-profit organizations that deliver, insure, or fund health care services outside of government control
    private health sector
  60. Example of public health policy made in the private sector
    insurance policies
  61. private health sector policies evolve differently through
    influenced by economics and business management
  62. Decisions in the private health sector are
    • swift 
    • proactive
  63. Needs of the private health sector are determined by
    • consumerism
    • market trends
    • economics
  64. Social security act
    • provides welfare for high-risk mothers and children
    • provisions for elderly
    • handicapped
    • Was the enactment of legislation for medicare and medicaid
  65. Medicare
    • federal program
    • pays for specified health services for 65+ who are eligiable for social security
    • Covers ppl with permanent disabilities and ESKD
  66. objective of medicare
    protect elderly and disabled against large medical outlays
  67. medicare is funded through
    payroll tax
  68. Medicaid
    • federal and state program
    • access to care for poor and medically needy of all ages
  69. Medicaid services are determined by
    the state

    (determine funding)
  70. Basic services such as _______________ are requried to be eligible for matching federal dollars as a part of which system
    Ambulance, inpt hostpital care, PT, labs, radiology, skilled nursing/home health 

  71. States may choose optional services for medicaid such as
    • psych care
    • drugs
    • glasses
    • dental
  72. Medicaid is based on
    income level
  73. Which service provides long-term care services (nursing homes) and personal services (homemaking)?
  74. authorized federal assistance in construction of hospitals and health centers with stipulations about services for uninsured
    hill burton act
  75. authorizes funds to aid RNs in full-time study of administration, supervision, or teachin
    health amendments act
  76. provided funds for loans and scholarships for full-time study for nurses and funds for construction of nursing schools
    nurse training act
  77. focuses on health needs and risks in the workplace and environment
    occupational saftey and health act
  78. HMO act
    • provided grants for HMO development
    • Rquired employers to offer federally qualified HMOs as health care coverage options to empoloyies
    • established that states were responsible for oversight
  79. most significant change in law in 40 years
    • Medicare Modernization Act
    • 2006
    • provides seniors and disabled w/ Rx drug benefit coverage, more choices and better benefits
  80. Mental Health Parity & Addictions Equity Act
    mandates that if a group health plan includes med-surg benefits &/or substance use disorder benefits, the financial requirements & treatment limitations that apply to mental health benefits must be no more restrictive than those applied to med-surg benefits.
  81. What reduced number of uninsured americans
    Health Care Reform Act
  82. what subsided premeiums for lower and middle-income families
    Health Care Reform Act
  83. requires coverage of dependent adults children up to 26
    Health Care Reform Act
  84. Insurance reform with Health Care Reform Act
    Established high-risk pools Covers preexisting conditions No lifetime limit on coverage Can’t drop people when they get sick Must provide preventative care & screenings w/o consumer cost sharing
  85. Changed eligibility requirements for Medicaid, allowing coverage of childless adults w/ incomes up to 133% of poverty line
    Health care reform act
  86. health care reform act funded through
    Indoor tanning taxes Higher Medicare taxes Fees for drug companies & medical equipment Penalties for those who don’t get insurance
  87. cost cutting measures of health care reform act
    Cuts Medicare Advantage Reduce Medicare spending Reduce administrative costs
  88. steps in policy formation
    • Adequacy in meeting health needs of public
    • Safeguards for individuals rights
    • Equitable allocation of resources
    • Capacity for implementation
    • Effects on target population
  89. State Legislative role
    Focus on financing & delivery of services & oversight of insurance to address the mission of public health throughout the state

    • Statewide prevention programs (tobacco use, newborn screenings)
    • Budgeting & tracking of basic public health services Providing specialized professional series (disease outbreak specialist)
    • Analyze statewide data to target threats Investigate outbreaks, hazards & threats
    • Verify resources Licensing & regulating health care, food services, etc.
    • Lab services for infectious diseases.
  90. VII funding (HRSA)
    • provides largest source of federal funding for nursing education
    • Favors education for practice in rural & medically undeserved communites
  91. Nurse Education, Expansion, & Development Act of 2009
    amended HRSA to increase funds for nursing schools
  92. Nurses are change agents because
    of their status w/ pts, ability to navigate the healthcare system, nurses must actively participate in the political process
  93. coalition
    2+ groups join to maximize resources, ­ influence, & improve success of achieving a common goal.
  94. Lobbyist
    a person who, voluntarily or for a fee, represents himself/herself, another person, organization, or entity before the legislature.
  95. lobby
    art of persuasion
  96. Political action committees
    nonpartisan entities promote the election of candidates believed to be sympathetic to their interests.
  97. novice campaining
    stuff envelops