Operations Chapter 1

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Kimmiey
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308774
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Operations Chapter 1
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2015-09-29 22:19:12
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Operations
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Operations
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  1. Craft production
    Every piece unique, hand fitted, and made entirely by one person
  2. Division of labor
    Adam Smit, production process broken down into a series of small tasks, each performed by different worker
  3. Interchangeable parts
    Eli Whitney, allowed manufacture of firearms, clocks, watches, sewing machines, and other goods to shift from customized one at a time production to volume production of standardized parts
  4. Scientific management
    Frederick taylor, scientific analysis of work methods
  5. Mass production
    Henry Ford, short assembly time allowing for high volumes
  6. Quality revolution
    Emphasis on quality and strategic role of operations
  7. Lean production
    An adaptation of mass production that prizes  quality (rather than quantity) and flexibility (rather than efficiency)
  8. Globalization
  9. Sustainability
  10. Industrial revolution
    • Steam engine - Watt
    • Division of labor - Smith
    • Interchangeable parts - Whitney
  11. Scientific management
    • Principles of scientific management - taylor
    • Time and motion studies - gilbreth
    • Activity scheduling chart - gantt
    • moving assembly line - ford
  12. Human relations
    • Hawthorne studies - mayo
    • Motivation theories - Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor
  13. Operations research Era
    • Linear programing - Dantzig
    • Digital computer - Rand
    • Simulation, waiting line theory, decision theory, PERT/CPM - operations research groups
    • MRP, EDI, EFT, CIM - Orlicky, IMB and others
  14. Quality Revolution Era
    • JIT - Ohno (Toyota)
    • TQM (Total Quality Management) - Deming + Juran
    • Strategy and operations - Skinner, Hayes
    • Reengineering - Hammer, Champy
    • Six Sigma - GE, Motorola
  15. Internet Revolution Era
    Internet, Ecommerce
  16. Why go Global?
    • Favorable cost
    • Access to international markets
    • response to changes in demand
    • reliable sources of supply
    • Latest trends and technologies
  17. Competitiveness
    the degree to which a nation can produce goods and services that meet the test of international markets while simultaneously maintaining or expanding the real incomes of its citizens
  18. Productivity
    represents how quickly an economy can expand its capacity to supply goods and services
  19. Multifactor productivity
    relates output to a combination of inputsInput we usually use is labor hours
  20. Strategy Formulation
    • 1. Defining a primary task
    • 2. Assessing core competencies / what does the firm do better
    • 3. Determining order winners and order qualifiers
    • 4. Positioning the firm / how will the firm compete
    • 5. Deploying the strategy
  21. How will firms compete
    • Cost - elimination of waste
    • Speed
    • Quality - view production as an opportunity to please the customer
    • Flexibility - ability of manufacturing to respond to variation
    • Innovation
  22. Balanced scorecard
    • how firm measures it performance on
    • Finances
    • Customers
    • Processes
    • Learning and growing
  23. Key performance indicators (KPIs)
    set of measures to help managers evaluate performance in critical areas

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