Anthropology

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lazvertiigo
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308784
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Anthropology
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2015-09-30 11:13:28
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CSUF Anthro
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CSUF Anthro, Stein CH01-04
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  1. Anthropology
    the study of humans:  human biology and culture, in our past, present, and future, about our similarities and differences.
  2. holism
    all parts of society are integrated and interdependent, so the religion must be considered in conjunction with kinship, economics, politics, the environment, etc.  The approach anthropologists use to study human societies as systematic sums of their parts, as integrated wholes; all parts of society are integrated and interdependent, so the religion must be considered in conjunction with kinship, economics, politics, the environment, etc.
  3. comparison
    by comparing cultures, we can find similarities in religious behavior, practices, and ideas, as well as account for differences
  4. cultural relativism
    we do not judge cultures (or religions) as better or worse, superior or inferior, but consider them relatively equal, so as not to bias the results of our investigations
  5. 3 perspectives from cultural anthropology
    Holism, Comparison, Cultural Relativism
  6. The Anthropological Perspective
    An approach that compares human societies throughout the world – contemporary and historical, industrial and tribal
  7. Physical Anthropology
    The study of human biology and evolution; anthropologists with a biological orientation discuss the evolutionary origins and the neurobiology of religious experience
  8. Archeology
    The study of people who are known only from their physical and cultural remains; it gives us insight into the lives of now extinct societies
  9. Linguistic Anthropology
    A field devoted to the study of language, which, according to many anthropologists, is a unique feature of humans
  10. Cultural Anthropology:
    Is the study of contemporary human societies and makes up the largest area of anthropological study; the study of religion is a subject within the general field of cultural anthropology
  11. Four Fields of Anthropology
    Physical, Archeology, Linguistic, Cultural
  12. Participant Observation:
    A technique of study that usually requires the anthropologist to live within the community and to participate to a degree in the lives of the people under study, while at the same time making objective observations
  13. Small-Scale:
    Relatively small communities, villages, and bands that practice foraging, herding, or technologically simple horticulture
  14. Human Universals:
    By studying smaller religions, anthropologists can see if there are characteristics that are found in all human societies
  15. Ethnography
    The descriptive study of human societies
  16. Ethnographers
    People who study human societies and write ethnographies about them; they are also called cultural anthropologists
  17. Ethnographic Present
    We discuss groups, including those that exist today or have existed in the recent past, in the present tense as they were first described by ethnographers
  18. Cultural Areas
    A geographical area in which societies tend to share many cultural traits
  19. Two Ways of Viewing Culture
    Etic Perspective and Emic Perspective
  20. Etic Perspective
    Outsiders looking in on another culture
  21. Emic Perspective
    One that attempts to see the world through the eyes of the people being studied
  22. Ethnocentrism
    The tendency to use our own society as a basis for interpreting and judging other societies
  23. Cultural Relativism
    An approach anthropologists use to attempt to describe and understand people’s customs and ideas but not to judge them
  24. Modernity
    Scholars approach an understanding of the world basing their knowledge on the ideals of rationality, objectivity, and reason
  25. Postmodernism
    Denies the possibility of acquiring, or even the existence of, “true” knowledge about the world
  26. Culture
    A society’s body of behaviors and beliefs
  27. Symbols
    Shared understandings about the meanings of certain words, attributes, or objects
  28. Operant Definition
    Is one in which we define our terms so that they are observable and measurable and therefore can be studied
  29. Analytic Definitions
    Focus on the way religion manifests itself or is expressed in a culture
  30. Functional Definitions
    Focus on what religion does either socially or psychologically
  31. Essentialist Definition
    This definition of religious books looks at what is the essential nature of religion
  32. Supernatural
    A term that refers to things that are “above the natural”
  33. Sacred
    A term added to the definition of religion that denotes an attitude wherein the subject is entitled to reverence and respect
  34. Animism
    A belief in spirit beings
  35. Theoretical Approaches to the Study of Religion
    Evolutionary, Marxist, Functional, Interpretive and Psychosocial
  36. Animatism
    A more basic, and more ancient supernatural force, that grew out of human emotional reaction to the power of nature
  37. Anthropomorphic
    Refers to things that are not human but have human like characteristics and behave in humanlike ways
  38. Theory of Mind
    Refers to the idea that people know, or think they know, what is going on in another people’s minds
  39. Agnosticism
    Agnostics say that the nature of the supernatural is unknowable, that it is as impossible to prove the nonexistence of the supernatural as it is to prove its existence
  40. Worldview
    Provides an understanding of how their world works. Forms the template for thought and behavior. Provides a basic understanding of the origin and nature of humankind and their relationship to the world around them
  41. Folktales
    Stories that are meant to entertain and contain supernatural elements and typically a moral
  42. Legends
    Seen by members of the culture as representing events that have actually taken place, although they are often embellished
  43. Urban Legends
    Stories that are recounted as having really happened, primarily on the Internet or in tabloids
  44. MYTHS
    Sacred stories that tell: Of the origin of the world and humankind.  Of the existence and activities of gods and spirits. Of the creation of order in the universe. Of the nature of illness and death.  How to behave.  How to distinguish good from evil
  45. GENESIS
    Example of a written text that has origins in oral narratives
  46. Social Charter
    Explains the proper organization of human relationships
  47. FIELDWORK AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
    Emphasis on ethnographic fieldwork and participant observation as well as on consensus and function as opposed to cultural change
  48. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
    Focuses on the underlying structure of the myth. For religious narratives, focus lies on the structure not the content
  49. PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMBOLS IN MYTH
    This approach to the analysis of myths interprets them as being symbolic and see this symbolism as being rooted in human psychology
  50. collective unconscious
    inborn elements of the unconscious that are manifested in dreams and myths
  51. Archetypes
    The main characters of these dreams and myths are termed archetypes (for example, Oedipus, the Phoenix, and the Hero).
  52. ORIGIN MYTHS
    Answer some of the most basic questions that humans have. Origin stories address the most basic questions of identity, both personal and communal
  53. APOCALYPTIC MYTHS
    Myths that tell of the catastrophic destruction of the world, an apocalypse
  54. TRICKSTER MYTHS
    Myths dealing with lesser things such as providing explanations of why things are the way they are or how people should and should not behave
  55. Trickster Characteristics:
    Adventurers, Gluttons, Searchers of sexual pleasures, Lazy and easily bored, Dishonest, Impulsive, yet they are responsible for creating or bringing into the world many elements such as the sun or fire, but this usually occurs inadvertently as a by-product of some other activity
  56. HERO MYTHS
    According to Joseph Campbell, while there are countless stories involving heroes throughout the world, they all follow the same basic story line, the monomyth
  57. THE SWASTIKA
    An example of a symbol that can stand for very complex ideas and can carry great emotional resonance
  58. THE PENTAGRAM:
    A term that can refer to any five-sided figure but is generally used to refer to a five-pointed star, also called a pentacle
  59. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS
    • The cross is the symbol most clearly associated with Christianity
    • Fish symbol: Most important early Christian symbol because the letters of the Greek word for fish, icthus, form an acrostic (a word that is derived from the first letter of a series of words)‏
  60. Psychoduct
    A pipe made of brick along the side of the staircase leading to his tomb, through which Pakal’s spirit moves from the tomb into the temple sanctuary during ritual
  61. Periodic Rituals
    Rituals that are performed according to a temporal cycle
  62. Totem
    A symbol or emblem of a social unit
  63. The totemic system has many components
    including totemic symbols, myths, and a sacred landscape
  64. Ritual
    A patterned, recurring sequence of events
  65. Religious Ritual
    A ritual that involves the manipulation of religious symbols such as prayers, offerings, and readings of sacred literature
  66. Prescriptive Rituals
    Rituals that are required to be performed
  67. Situational Rituals
    Rituals that are performed because of a particular need of an individual or community. Also called crisis rituals
  68. Periodic Rituals
    Rituals performed on a regular basis as part of a religious calendar. Also called calendrical rituals
  69. Occasional Rituals
    Rituals that are performed for a specific purpose with a situation arises that requires the ritual to be performed
  70. Technological Rituals
    Rituals that attempt to influence or control nature, especially in activities that affect human activities and well-being
  71. Divination Rituals
    Rituals that seek information about the unknown
  72. Social Rites of Intensification
    Rituals that delineate codes of proper behavior and articulate the community’s worldview
  73. Ethnobotany
    The anthropological study of medicinal plants
  74. Therapy Rituals
    Rituals that focus on curing
  75. Cursing ritual
    An anti-therapy ritual such as the bone-pointing ritual found among the Australian Aborigines
  76. Status
    Social positions held within a society
  77. Rank
    The relative placement of each position in the society
  78. Separation
    In this phase, the individual is removed from his or her former status (The Structure of a Rite of Passage)
  79. Transition
    During this phase, several activities take place that bring about the change in status (The Structure of a Rite of Passage)
  80. Incorporation
    The final phase during which an individual reenters normal society, though in a new social relationship (The Structure of a Rite of Passage)
  81. Liminality
    The state of ambiguous marginality during which the metamorphosis takes place
  82. Liminality
    The state of ambiguous marginality during which the metamorphosis takes place
  83. Communitas
    Within this state not only is there a sense of equality, but the mere fact that a group of individuals is moving through the process together brings about a sense of community and camaraderie
  84. Age Grade
    A specific status defined by age
  85. Cicatrization
    Scarification
  86. Branding
    Scars are created by burns
  87. Subincision
    When the underside of the penis is cut and the urethra slit open
  88. Clitoridectomy
    Form of female circumcision when the prepuce of the clitoris or a part of the clitoris itself is removed or when the labia minora is removed with the clitoris
  89. Pharaonic infibulation
    More extreme form of genital mutilation when the entire clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora are removed
  90. Pilgrimage
    A journey to a sacred place
  91. Tabu
    Some objects and people that may be off limits in a society
  92. Kashrut
    the Jewish law regarding what foods can and cannot be eaten and how foods must be prepared
  93. rites of passage
    mark transition points in the lives of individuals; ideally occurs once during a person’s lifespan
  94. rites of intensification
    maintain and intensify group equilibrium and solidarity; ideally recurs on a regular cycle.
  95. Types of Ritual
    Technological, Therapy, Ideological, Salvation, and Revitalization

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