Bone Breaks

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Author:
Ghoelix
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308786
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Bone Breaks
Updated:
2015-09-30 04:11:01
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Bone Breaks
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Bone Breaks
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  1. Why is it important to know skeletal trauma and surgical radiography terms?
    • Allows technologist to understand:
    •   which type of injury or fracture is suspected
    •   which projection to make
    •   how to avoid positioning that could cause pain or injury
  2. Dislocation / luxation
    • Bone is displaced from a joint
    • Movement of these parts could be painful and must be avoided
    • Get two projections, 90 degrees apart to show degree of separation
  3. If dislocated joint has relocated, are x-rays still necessary?
    • Yes.
    • Damage could have still occurred
    • Get two projections, 90 degrees apart
  4. Subluxation
    Partial dislocation
  5. Nursemaid's Elbow / Jerked Elbow
    • Partial dislocation of radial head of child's elbow, due to hand / wrist being sharply jerked by an adult.
    • Frequently reduced when forearm is supinated for AP elbow projection.
  6. Sprain
    Forced wrenching or twisting of a joint that results in a partial rupture or tearing of supporting ligaments, without dislocation.
  7. Possible damage caused by sprain
    • May result in severe damage to associated:
    •   blood vessels
    •   tendons
    •   ligaments
    •   nerves
  8. Contusion
    Bruise type of injury with possible avulsion fracture.
  9. Fracture
    A break in the bone.
  10. Positioning of possible fractures
    • Use caution when moving possible fractures parts
    • Never force a potentially fractured limb or body part into position
    • Adapt positioning as needed
  11. Apposition
    Describes the manner in which the fragmented ends of the bone make contact with each other.
  12. Anatomic apposition
    Ends of the broken fragments make end-to-end contact.
  13. Lack of apposition
    Ends of fragments are aligned but pulled apart and are not making contact with each other.
  14. Bayonet apposition
    • Fragments overlap and the shafts make contact, but not at the fracture ends.
    • (Bont. 573)
  15. Angulation
    • Loss of alignment of the fracture.
    • Long bone fragments at angles to each other.
  16. Apex Angulation
    Kind of like, if a straight bone is broken into a kind of sideways V shape.  If the point of the V points toward the midline of the body or away from midline of body.
  17. Varus deformity
    Break opens away from midline of the body, apex of the now broken bone points away from midline of the body.
  18. Valgus deformity
    Break opens toward midline of body, apex of now broken bone points towards midline of body.
  19. Simple / closed fracture
    Bone does not break through the skin.
  20. Compound / open fracture
    Portion of broken bone protrudes through the skin.
  21. Incomplete fracture
    Bone is not broken all the way through / not broken all the way across.
  22. Torus fx
    • Incomplete fracture.
    • Buckle of cortex ( outer portion of the bone ) with possibly little or not displacement.
    • No complete break in cortex.
  23. Greenstick fx
    • Fracture is on one side of bone only.
    • Coretex on only one side of bone is broken, other side is bent.
    • Happens most often to young children whose bones are still rubbery.
  24. Complete fx
    Break is complete across entire bone.
  25. Complete fx
     Transverse fx
    Fracture is transverse across bone, at near right angles to long axis of the bone.
  26. Complete fx
      Oblique fx
    Fracture passes through bone at oblique angle.
  27. Complete fx
      Spiral fx
    Bone has been twisted apart and the fracture spirals around the long axis.
  28. Comminuted
    • Bone is splintered or crushed at site of impact.
    • Results in two or more fragments.
  29. Comminuted
      Segmental fx
    Bone is broken at two places, creating three bone segments from an original one.
  30. Comminuted
      Butterfly fx
    • Two fragments oneacy side of a main, wedge-shaped, separate fragment.
    • Kind of a Y-shaped break transverse across a long bone.
  31. Comminuted
      Splintered fx
    Bone is splintered into thin, sharp fragments.
  32. Impacted fx
    • One fragment is firmly driven into the other.
    • I.E. shaft of a long bone being driven into the head of that bone.
    • Common at distal or proximal ends of femur, humerus, radius.
  33. Barton's fx
    Intra-articular fracture of posterior lip of distal radius.
  34. Baseball / mallet fx
    Fracture of distal phalanx caused by ball striking the end of an extended finger (ouch).
  35. Bennet's fx
    • Longitudinal fracture of the base of the first metacarpal, with fracture line entering the carpometacarpal joint.
    • Usually includes posterior dislocation of subluxation.
  36. Boxer's fx
    • Usually involves distal fifth mecatarpal
    • Apex posterior angulation
    • Best demonstrated on lateral view
    • Usually happens from punching someone or something.
  37. Colles' fx
    • Distal radius is fractures with the distal fragment displaced posteriorly.
    • May result from forward foll on an outstretched arm.
  38. Smith's fx / reverse Colles' fx
    • Distal fragment of radius displaced anteriorly.
    • Commonly results from backward fall on outstretched hand.
  39. Pott's fx
    • Complete fracture of the distal fibula with major injury to the ankle joint.
    • Includes ligament damage.
    • Frequently includes fracture of distal tibia or medial malleolus.
  40. Avulsion fx
    • Fragment of bone is separated or pulled away by the attached tendon or ligament.
    • Results from severe stress to a tendon or ligament in a joint region.
  41. Blowout and / or tripod fx
    • Fracture of the orbital floorand lateral orbital margins.
    • Result from direct blow to the orbit and / or maxilla and zygoma.
  42. Chip fx
    • Involves isolated bone fragment.
    • Not the result of ligament stress.
  43. Compression fx
    • Vertebral body collapses or is compressed.
    • Caused by compression type injury.
    • Appears on radiograph as decreased vertical dimension of the anterior vertebral body.
  44. Depressed fx / ping pong fx
    • Depressed fragment of skull.
    • Resembles a dented ping pong ball?
  45. Epiphyseal fx
    • Fracture through the epiphyseal plate.
    • One of the most easily fractures sites in long bones of children.
    • Radiologists may use Salter-Harris classification (scale of 1 - 5) to to describe severity and reasonable indication of prognosis.
  46. Pathologic fx
    Fracture due to a disease process within the bone ( osteoporosis, neoplasia ).
  47. Stellate fx
    • Fracture lines radiate from a central point of injury, with a starlike pattern.
    • Most commonly happens on patellas.
    • Often caused by knees hitting dash board during a car accident.
  48. Stress or fatique fx / march fx
    • Nontraumatic fracture due to repeated stress on a bone such as running or marching.
    • If running - fracture at distal shaft of tibia.
    • If marching - mid-shafts of metatarsals.
  49. Trimalleolar fx
    Fracture of medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, and posterior lip of distal tibia.
  50. Tuft fx / burst fx
    • Comminuted fx of distal phalanx.
    • May be caused by crushing blow to distal finger or thumb.
    • Hitting finger or thumb with hammer.
  51. Closed reduction
    • Fracture fragments are realigned by manipulation ( ouch ) and ar immobilized by a cast or splint.
    • Nonsurgical procedure.
  52. Open reduction.
    • Surgical procedure.
    • For severe fractures with significant displacement or fragmentation.
  53. Small to medium plaster cast
      Increase exposure by...
    +5 to +7 kV
  54. Large plaster cast
      Increase exposure by...
    +8 to +10 kV
  55. Fiberglass cast
      Increase exposure by...
    +3 to +4 kV

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