1 Ling 204

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ECCammi
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308803
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1 Ling 204
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2015-09-30 14:17:25
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First Chapter Class Linguistics Sociolinguistics
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First chapter and class notes for Linguistics 204: Sociolinguistics
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  1. Speech Community
    A group of people in habitual contact with each other, sharing a language variety and social conventions, or sociolinguistic norms, about language use
  2. Social category
    A way of grouping people by traits that are relatively fixed, such as class, gender, or ethnicity or open to active performance and construction
  3. Social relationships
    How each of us as social beings adapt our language to shut the situation and the audience. Often contrasted with social characteristics, the socially relevant traits that we are seen to possess
  4. Free variation
    A term used when the speaker's choice between forms or variants is completely arbitrary and unpredictable. Opposite of structured variation
  5. Structured variation
    A term used when the speaker's choice between forms (or variants) is linked to other factors. Opposite of free variation
  6. Categorical
    The opposite of probabilistic, categorical rules are absolute, that is, they apply every time that they can apply
  7. Variations
    A researcher who focuses on variations sociolinguistics
  8. Sociology of language
    The branch of sociology concerned with language. Unlike sociolinguistics this approach studies the social contexts of language without recourse to analysis of linguistic structure.
  9. Two complementary approaches needed to study language
    • Raw data (parole, performance)
    • System (language, competence)
  10. Raw language of data
    • What people actually say
    • Ways of behaving, which is subject to pressures of moment and varies according to situations and personalities
  11. Sum of all variations used in language
    • Caused by chance and choice
    • Take into account individual preferences, differences of pronunciations and selection of terms
    • Can only treat what is actually produced (close object: text or utterance)
  12. System of language
    • Grammar, sound systems, class of words and expressions
    • Abstract structure
    • Competence of speaker/hearers is a systemize abstraction from data
  13. Competence (Of speaker/hearers)
    • Reduced order in grammatical, lexical, phonetic or phonemic terms
    • Imposing constraints and explanatory structures on real usage, rejecting some items as being ungrammatical or irrelevant
  14. Linguistic competence
    Speaker's ability to produce/interpret new utterances
  15. A grammar
    The mental system that allows linguistic competence ability is known as a grammar
  16. Types of linguistic competence
    • Phonetics
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Syntax
    • Semantics
  17. Phonetics
    Study of articulation and perception of speech sounds
  18. Phonology
    Study of the sound system or pattern
  19. Morphology
    Study of words and their internal structure
  20. Semantics
    Study of meaning
  21. Properties of Grammar
    • All languages:
    • Have a grammar
    • Are equal (grammars are descriptive, not prescriptive)
    • Change
    • Are alike (language universal)
  22. Tacit
    Knowledge of linguistic competence is unconscious.
  23. Sociolinguistics or micro-linguistics
    • The study of language in relation to society
    • Investigates the relationship to better understand the structure of language and how languages function in communitcation
  24. Sociology of language or macro-sociolinguistics
    • Study of society related to language
    • Tries to discover how to understand social situations through language

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