2 Ling 204

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ECCammi
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308804
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2 Ling 204
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2015-10-01 16:51:07
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Linguistics Sociolinguistics
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Second day of ling 204 notes
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  1. Principles of sociolinguistic investigations
    • Cumulative principle
    • The unifromation principle
    • Principle of convergence
    • Principle of subordinate shift
    • Principle of style shifting
    • Principle of attention
    • Vernacular principle
    • Principle of formality
  2. Cumulative principle
    More known about language the more we can find out
  3. The uniformation principle
    Linguistic processes we observe around us are the same as the past
  4. Principle of convergance
    Value of new data for confirming/interpreting old finds is directly proportional to the differences in the ways new data is gathered
  5. Principle of subordinate shift
    Speakers of a non-standard variety shift their response either to/from standard
  6. Principle of style shifting
    No one speaks exactly the same way in all circumstances
  7. Principle of attention
    More aware of what you say the more formal you say it
  8. Vernacular principle
    Style most regular in its structure is vernacular
  9. Principle of formality
    Observer's paradox (Labov)
  10. Mentalist
    The philosophy or approach that describes how language is represented in the mind
  11. Competence
    A distinction drawn by Chomsky (1965) (vs. performance) that refers primarily to what speakers know about language
  12. Performance
    What speakers actually produce hen speaking (which might be full of false starts, errors, hesitations, and other such "noise" as well as switches between dialects)
  13. Empiricist
    The philosophy or approach that knowledge comes through sensory experience
  14. Ethnography
    A branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of individual cultures
  15. Speech community
    A group of people who are in habitual contact with one another, who share a language variety and social conventions or sociolinguistic norms about language use.
  16. Social network
    The different groups of people that each of us had interacted with over the years
  17. Community of practice (CofP)
    Unit of analysis that looks at a smaller analytical domain that social networks. A community of practice is characterized by mutual engagement, a jointly negotiated enterprise and a shared repertoire
  18. Sociolinguistics norms
    A combination of expressed attitudes and variable linguistic behaviors shared by all members of a speech commmunity
  19. Dense
    A term used to describe the number of connections within a social network. In a low density network people know a central member but not each other. In a high density network members know and interact with each other
  20. Multiplex
    A term used to describe social networks in which members have multiple connections with one another. The opposite of a uniplex network.
  21. Speaker agency
    The ability of speakers to control what they do and to make conscious choices
  22. Heuristic
    Guidelines for how to approach a research problem
  23. Brokers
    People who participate in multiple communities of practice and bring ideas from one into the other, that is, people who introduce innovations to their social networks
  24. Corpus linguistics
    A linguistic research method based on the quantative analysis of collections of naturally occurring language data, usually very larage
  25. Qualitative
    Usury smaller scale intensive research, using methods like interviewing and ethnography that aims to study meanings and motivation, rather than large scale quantitative frequencies or correlations
  26. Conversation analysis
    Among other things, this method looks at the sequential organization of conversation and how participants manage the conversation using strategies like turn talking
  27. How we experience the world as part of social groups
    • Affects how we use language.
    • -We need to specify "language" and "social group" to be rigorous in studying that relationship
  28. Language in use as a methodological issue
    Recording/documenting actual language (empirical methods)
  29. Language in use as a theoretical issue
    What "counts" as a language?
  30. Many linguists (not sociolinguists)
    • Elicit Lang forms of interest: "How do you say this in your Lang?"
    • Use that information to build up a grammar: Description of how that Lang is represented in the mind
    • Actual use isn't helpful, because it's full of "noise": (false starts, etc), Competence vs. Performance
  31. Sociolinguistic perspective
    • Empiricist
    • Lang is actually used and recorded
    • Everyday "real" Lang is more structured than you'd think
  32. Real language is collected through
    • Recording people: Sociolinguistic interviews designed to encourage focus on content of speech and not the form
    • Harvesting data from existing sources: Media, internet, data collected for other purposes, personal letters, diaries etc
  33. Sociolinguistic info is about language
    • Usage of surveys
    • Attitude surveys, experiments
  34. For non-linguists language often means
    • Standard language: From school/formal documents, often seen by non-lings as more "correct"
    • Associated with a prescriptive approach: How people "should" talk
    • Other Lang (non-standard, dialect): often seen as chaotic, not rule governed
  35. A necessary attitude for the scientific study of linguistics is
    • There's no "good" or "bad" Lang, it's descriptive
    • How people actually talk
  36. Social evaluation of language varieties that we study
    • Different ones are seen as good/bad by members of society
    • Different ones are considered appropriate in different social contexts
  37. Language vs. dialect
    • Linguistically: mutual intelligibility (Can we understand each other? If yes we are speaking the same Lang)
    • Socially/politically: Who gets to decide?
  38. Mutual intelligibility problems
    • Social distance affects how much we expect to understand someone: Power imbalance means more powerful people don't have to try to understand less powerful people
    • Context affects how much we understand: what do we expect people to be talking about?
  39. "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy"
    If a subgroups has the power (politically/socially) to convince people that its Lang is distinct it becomes a known as a language (ex. Swedish, Dutch, Norwegian are mutually intelligible but considered different languages)
  40. Cantonese and Mandarin
    Are not mutually intelligible but are considered dialects of the same Lang because there is a political interest in unity over diversity
  41. Slang
    Lexicon that are new or have new meanings
  42. Accent
    Phonetics/phonology (pronunciation)
  43. Variety
    What many sociolinguistics call a subset of a language
  44. Dialect
    Usually a regional subset of a language (sometimes used to mean variety)
  45. Social group
    Lang gets its meaning and power through speaker's participation in language-using groups, but which groups matter/how does the group relate to the language use?
  46. Groups people belong to
    • Speech community
    • Social network
    • Community of practice
  47. Speech community
    • Group of people sharing social conventions or Sociolinguistic norms about language use
    • A Sociolinguistic concept discovered through investigation of the Lang of a community
    • But based on other social boundaries (Cities, ethnic groups etc)
    • Members don't always agree on norms/usage
  48. Norms
    • Can be expressed attitudes
    • Or a variable linguistic behavior
  49. Shared norms-consensus model
    People in a speech community tend to have very similar linguistic behaviors compared to other distinctions so researchers can study a small sample and still "get" how a community's variety works
  50. Social networks
    • Term from social anthropology, we all build networks (personal communities) to deal with life
    • Out social networks influence how we use language and how we participate in language change
  51. Looser social networks
    Introduce new forms
  52. Community of practice
    • Term from reach on social learning, it's a groups with mutual engagement in a jointly negotiated enterprise, involving (or leading to) a shared repertoire
    • Smaller groups, local practices
    • More room for speaker agency, the idea that people make conscious choices
  53. "Nested communities"
    • Speech community: Your town
    • Social network: youth street, school, workplace
    • Community of practice: your club, study group
  54. Spreading changes
    Some people are leaders of change (brokers) they are more gregarious, plugged into multiple groups and have status or legitimacy within groups

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