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Who is Adlous Huxley
author of The Art of Seeing
had seeing disorder
What is Aldous Huxley stages for clear vision? (his seeing formula?)
Sensing + Selecting + perceiving = SEEING
what is Sensing
receiving visual stimuli by eye letting in enough light to see objects around you. depends on the all the working part of your eye
What is Selecting
consciously selecting something to focus on with the eye's sharpest vision (fovea) from the entire scene
what is Perceiving
making sense of what you have selected and finding meaning
Who said: "The more you know the more you see"
What are the Visual Cues?
color, form, depth, movement
What are the methods of color?
objective, comparative and subjective
what is the color objective method?
scientific method of color perception as a result of different light wavelengths stimulating the back of the retina.
What are the primary colors?
red, green and blue
What are the secondary colors?
cyan, magenta and yellow
What is the color comparative method?
you compare colors to the real world. like green is leaf. a problem is that people perceive colors differently
What is the color subjective method?
- a symbolic way of describing colors.
- how colors reflect emotions and physiological states
What are the types of form?
Dots, lines and shapes
what is the form dots?
simplest possible form. Everything is made up of dots
what is the form line?
a series of dots.
what is the form shape?
combination of dots and lines into patterns shapes can be quickly identified and separated from the background
what is the shape, parallelogram?
- a four-sided figure with opposite sides that are parallel and equal in length. Squares are
- associated with dull, balanced, sturdy and straightforward.
What is the shape, circle?
a circle is an important attention grabber. important human shape
what is the shape, triangle?
most dynamic and active shape. convey direction but also create tension
What is the visual cue: depth?
illusion we see because we have two eyes giving us different views
What are the depth cues?
space, size, color, lighting(and shadow), textural gradients, interposition (objects overlapping), time (the more you look at something), and perpective
Colors involvement in depth
- warm colors: closer
- cool colors: farther away
What are the elements of the visual cue: movement?
- real movement: object actually moving
- apparent movement: objects appears to be moving
- graphic movement: way eye moves in a design
- implied movement: movement that is perceived form a still image
What is the Gestalt Theory of Visual Perception?
Max Wertheimer's idea that the eye merely takes in stimuli but the brain arranges the sensations into a coherent image
Without the brain movement would not take place
Who said: "The Whole is different from the sum of its parts" ? What does it mean?
Max Wetheimer in the Gestalt theory. Perception is a result of a combo of sensations and not individual sensory elements
What are the elements to the Gestalt theory?
- Similarity: objects that look similar are grouped together
- proximity: objects close to each other are grouped together
- continuation: brain seeks continuous line, doe snot like sudden or unusual changes
- common fate: objects in the same direction are grouped togehter
What is the constructivism theory?
- Julian Hochberg's idea that the eye is consenting moving and absorbing information to construct a larger image
What are the sensory theories of visual communication?
Gestalt and Constructivism Theories. Concerned about how brain notices and fails to see the visual cues
What are the perceptual theories of visual communication?
Semiotics and cognitive theories focus on the complex meaning humans apply to objects we see
What is the semiotics theory?
a perceptual theory that concentrates on the signs
What are the different types of signs in the semiotic theory?
- iconic: resemble the thing they represent
- Indexical: learned signs that have a logical connection to the thing they represent
- Symbolic: learned signs, have to be taught because they are abstract
What is metonymic code?
part of the semiotic theory, it is a collection of signs that cause viewer to make assumptions about what is seen
what is analogical code?
part of the semiotic theory, it is a group of signs that cause the viewer to make comparisons
What is displaced code?
when there is a transfer of meaning from one set of signs to another
what is condensed code
several signs that combine to form a new composite meaning
What is the cognitive theory?
a perceptual theory that focus on the viewer's mind as well as what is seen
According to the cognitive theory, what are the mental activities that affect visual perception?
- memory: a link to all images we have seen
- projection: making an images from other forms like clouds
- expectation: see what we expect to see
Sensation vs perception
- sensation is the raw data
- perception is the conclusion drawn from the data
What are the chains of association?
- codes by Roland Barthes
- metonymy, analogy, displaced and condensed
What is the hippocampus?
part of the brain that stores and recalls memories and effects emotions
Who is Tomas Young?
he linked color to the human eye. Eye must be composed of 3 different light sensitive receptors
tri-color theory of perception
by Young and Helmoltz is about the mixing of three primary colors to create all colors
Visual communication circle
- the more you...
What are types of cognitive illusions?
- ambiguous: switching interpretation
- distorting: caused by size, length or curve
- paradox: misunderstanding that adjacent edges must join
What helps recall an image?
- When you think using words and images.
- Talking about a scene
uses facts and emotions to promote a desired behavior
uses nonfactual info or opinions that appear to be facts
Aristole's persuasion theory
- ethos: credibility
- logos: logic
- pathos: emotions