Human Dimensions Exam 1

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eeliz1
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Human Dimensions Exam 1
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2015-10-07 09:56:54
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  1. LA sink holes
    Sink holes in LA contain chemicals which can leak into watershed.  Sink holes caused by salt mines, over drained aquifers, oil exploration.
  2. 4 general human dimensions questions
    • 1) When should we obtain info?
    • 2) How should we get it?
    • 3) How should we weight the information?
    • 4) Can we arrive at a mutually acceptable solution?
  3. Descriptive studies
    data from questions are analyzed discretely or lumped into meaningful subgroups.  Useful but limited.
  4. Conceptual studies
    data from questions analyzed to examine patterns in responses.  Searches for underlying reasons/attitudes.
  5. Kellert's Typology, Naturalistic
    interest in and affection for wildlife and outdoors
  6. Kellert's Typology, Ecologistic
    environment as a system
  7. Kellert's Typology, Humanistic
    interest and affection for individuals animals.  Focus on charismatic megafauna.  Often in conflict with naturalistic people.
  8. Kellert's Typology, Aesthetic
    interest in artistic and symbolic roles of animals (ex. artists, Native American religious leaders).
  9. Kellert's Typology, Utilitarian
    interest in practical and material value of animals or animals' habitat.  Less common in developed world than developing world and less common now than in past.
  10. Kellert's Typology, Dominionistic
    interst in mastery and conrtol of animals (ex. bull fighters)
  11. Kellert's Typology, Negativistic
    active avoidance of animals due to dislike or fear (ex. Pilgrims)
  12. Kellert's Typology, Neutralistic
    Passive avoidance due to indifference or lack of interest (ex. technophiles).
  13. Cognitive approach
    • examines concepts (e.g. values, attitudes, and norms) underlying the process from thought to action and the relationship among those concepts.
    • may be used predictively
    • more common traditionally
  14. Cognitions
    the collections of mental processes and activities used in percieving, remembering, thinking and understanding as well as the act of using these processes.  Typically, these are considered as a hiearchy.
  15. Values
    desirable end states, modes of conduct, or qualities of life that we individually or collectively hold dear.  Ex. Gender equality or freedom of expression.
  16. Basic beliefs
    • thoughts about specific objects or issues that give meaning to values. 
    • patterns may suggest overall value orientation
    • value may have multiple basic beliefs; values can be situational
  17. Value orientation
    "direction" or application of a value.  Useful across cultures.  Ex. Equality may be applied to all living things or just humans.
  18. Manfredos 2 general value orientations
    • Domination: wildlife use, recreational, hunting, fishing
    • Mutualism: wildlife rights, residential, educational, bequest/existence.
  19. Attitude
    • a person's evaluation, either favorable or unfavorable, or a person, object, concept, or action.
    • can predict and influence behaviors
    • focus of most HD research
  20. Attitude specificity
    how closely the attitude relates to an issue
  21. Attitude salience
    how easily and quickly thoughts come to mind; how accessible the thoughts are.
  22. Norms
    • standards of behavior.  Norms specify what people should do or what most people do.
    • Norms directly influence behavior
  23. Social norms
    standards shared by a group
  24. Personal norms
    individuals own expectations, learned from shared experiences and modified by interaction
  25. Anthropocentric ethics typology
    only human beings posses inherent value.  Other things only have value based on their usefulness to humans.  One has concern about the environment only in how degradation of the environment effects other human interests.
  26. Social ecology typology
    environmental problems have a social origin, and their solution is concomitant with alleviation of these social injustices.  Presumption is that human behaviors that degrade the environment are the result of social, economic, and political structures that surround and enable the behavior.  Modification of current social, economic, and political conditions are required for solving environmental problems.
  27. Biocentric ethics typology
    inherent value is extended beyond animals to all living things.  Some eastern religious traditions, like Jainism.
  28. Ecocentric ethics typology
    one's ethical duty is not just to plants and animals.  One values the ecosystem as a whole.  Value of organisms within an ecosystem depends on their value to the larger system.
  29. Deep Ecology typology
    this ethic is a cross between biocentric ethics with social emphasis.  Deep Ecology does not blame social structures and injustices for all environmental troubles, but rather blame unequal distribution of resources among humans and between humans with plants and animals and overpopulation by humans for environmental issues.  Decentralization, increased cultural awareness and sensitivity, and de-globalization are the solutions to environmental problems.
  30. Ecofeminism typology
    ecofeminism can range from advocating a gender-neutral (non-patriarchal, i.e. the animals are not sheep to our shepherd) approach to assigning value to a viewpoint that links oppression of women to degredation of nature.  In either case, androcentrism is rejected (i.e. the relationship of humans to the environment is not that of father and child).
  31. Autocratic organization decision making
    decisions are unilateral; they are made by one individual, typically head of department/agency/ect.
  32. Bureaucratic organization decision making
    authority is given to individual to decide and decisions can be overturned by higher authority
  33. What factors influence whether communication is accepted or rejected?
    agreed with held values/beliefs, credibility of course, pre-existing attitudes, bias regarding source.
  34. Held value
    values that give rise to beliefs
  35. Assigned value
    monetary worth placed on object, experience, etc. based on our held values.

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