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LA sink holes
Sink holes in LA contain chemicals which can leak into watershed. Sink holes caused by salt mines, over drained aquifers, oil exploration.
4 general human dimensions questions
- 1) When should we obtain info?
- 2) How should we get it?
- 3) How should we weight the information?
- 4) Can we arrive at a mutually acceptable solution?
data from questions are analyzed discretely or lumped into meaningful subgroups. Useful but limited.
data from questions analyzed to examine patterns in responses. Searches for underlying reasons/attitudes.
Kellert's Typology, Naturalistic
interest in and affection for wildlife and outdoors
Kellert's Typology, Ecologistic
environment as a system
Kellert's Typology, Humanistic
interest and affection for individuals animals. Focus on charismatic megafauna. Often in conflict with naturalistic people.
Kellert's Typology, Aesthetic
interest in artistic and symbolic roles of animals (ex. artists, Native American religious leaders).
Kellert's Typology, Utilitarian
interest in practical and material value of animals or animals' habitat. Less common in developed world than developing world and less common now than in past.
Kellert's Typology, Dominionistic
interst in mastery and conrtol of animals (ex. bull fighters)
Kellert's Typology, Negativistic
active avoidance of animals due to dislike or fear (ex. Pilgrims)
Kellert's Typology, Neutralistic
Passive avoidance due to indifference or lack of interest (ex. technophiles).
- examines concepts (e.g. values, attitudes, and norms) underlying the process from thought to action and the relationship among those concepts.
- may be used predictively
- more common traditionally
the collections of mental processes and activities used in percieving, remembering, thinking and understanding as well as the act of using these processes. Typically, these are considered as a hiearchy.
desirable end states, modes of conduct, or qualities of life that we individually or collectively hold dear. Ex. Gender equality or freedom of expression.
- thoughts about specific objects or issues that give meaning to values.
- patterns may suggest overall value orientation
- value may have multiple basic beliefs; values can be situational
"direction" or application of a value. Useful across cultures. Ex. Equality may be applied to all living things or just humans.
Manfredos 2 general value orientations
- Domination: wildlife use, recreational, hunting, fishing
- Mutualism: wildlife rights, residential, educational, bequest/existence.
- a person's evaluation, either favorable or unfavorable, or a person, object, concept, or action.
- can predict and influence behaviors
- focus of most HD research
how closely the attitude relates to an issue
how easily and quickly thoughts come to mind; how accessible the thoughts are.
- standards of behavior. Norms specify what people should do or what most people do.
- Norms directly influence behavior
standards shared by a group
individuals own expectations, learned from shared experiences and modified by interaction
Anthropocentric ethics typology
only human beings posses inherent value. Other things only have value based on their usefulness to humans. One has concern about the environment only in how degradation of the environment effects other human interests.
Social ecology typology
environmental problems have a social origin, and their solution is concomitant with alleviation of these social injustices. Presumption is that human behaviors that degrade the environment are the result of social, economic, and political structures that surround and enable the behavior. Modification of current social, economic, and political conditions are required for solving environmental problems.
Biocentric ethics typology
inherent value is extended beyond animals to all living things. Some eastern religious traditions, like Jainism.
Ecocentric ethics typology
one's ethical duty is not just to plants and animals. One values the ecosystem as a whole. Value of organisms within an ecosystem depends on their value to the larger system.
Deep Ecology typology
this ethic is a cross between biocentric ethics with social emphasis. Deep Ecology does not blame social structures and injustices for all environmental troubles, but rather blame unequal distribution of resources among humans and between humans with plants and animals and overpopulation by humans for environmental issues. Decentralization, increased cultural awareness and sensitivity, and de-globalization are the solutions to environmental problems.
ecofeminism can range from advocating a gender-neutral (non-patriarchal, i.e. the animals are not sheep to our shepherd) approach to assigning value to a viewpoint that links oppression of women to degredation of nature. In either case, androcentrism is rejected (i.e. the relationship of humans to the environment is not that of father and child).
Autocratic organization decision making
decisions are unilateral; they are made by one individual, typically head of department/agency/ect.
Bureaucratic organization decision making
authority is given to individual to decide and decisions can be overturned by higher authority
What factors influence whether communication is accepted or rejected?
agreed with held values/beliefs, credibility of course, pre-existing attitudes, bias regarding source.
values that give rise to beliefs
monetary worth placed on object, experience, etc. based on our held values.