3 Ling 204

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  1. Why does everyone acknowledge regional differences?
    There are differences at even the level of formal language
  2. Why are there differences in formal languages?
    • Different places/varieties est. by different people with different backgrounds
    • Barriers/isolation let langs develop differently
    • Different varieties are in contact with different langs
  3. Rough timeline of English
    • 450 AD different parts of England settled/conquered by Germanic tribes/regions (Angles, Saxons, Mutes)
    • 800-1000 North influenced by Norse invaders
    • 1066 onward: French influence (esp. in uppercase)
    • Later London/Oxford/Cambridge become the prestige dialect which influences others
  4. The spread of English happened mostly in
    The post 1500's colonization/exploration period
  5. The spread of English in Ireland
    Normans, then upper class through land confiscation
  6. The spread of English in Scotland
    Very distinct local variety, maybe moves closer to England English once they share royalty
  7. The Spread of English in Newfoundland and Caribbean
    Came from the settling of mostly SW English and SE Irish
  8. North American mainland
    • East Anglia
    • Southern England
    • Northern England, N. Ireland
    • US midland, New England
    • The dialects spread west and the boundaries blur
    • Some other inputs (Scots English in Cape Breton Island)
  9. East Anglia
    New England
  10. Southern England
    US coastal south midland
  11. Northern England, N. Ireland
  12. US midland, New England
    Central Canada
  13. Southern English varieties
    • Australia, New Zealand, South Africa
    • Largely settle from southern England with some other inputs (Scots English in Southern New Zealand)
    • Differences developed due to separation
  14. Circles of English
    • Associated with Bram Kachru but not everyone finds the distinctions useful
    • Consists of inner, outer and expanding circle
  15. Inner circle of English
    US, Canada, England, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, countries where English is the official Lang/the first Lang of most people
  16. Outer circle of English
    Former colonies of UK or US where English still plays a main role despite not being the first language of most
  17. Expanding circle of English
    Places where English plays a role as a foreign or shared language
  18. Differences in regional English
    • Pronunciation: especially vowels
    • Occasional grammatical differences: I have just eaten vs I just ate
    • Many lexical (word) differences
  19. Types of isolation
    Physical, linguistic or social
  20. Physical isolation
    • Actual barriers to travel
    • Newfoundland English: Big island in N. Atlantic
    • Retention of traditional language features: I loves it, I'm after hearing that
  21. Linguistic isolation
    • Islands of language in a sea of another
    • Qu├ębec French is surrounded by English
    • Retains traditional features
    • Some effects of contact with English
  22. Social isolation
    • Prejudice, distrust and difference
    • African Nova Scotian English: limited integration between African English and whites
    • Retains traditional features
  23. Other factors that may reinforce isolation
    • Limited education, media
    • Limited in-migration- nobody bringing in innovations from "home" community
  24. Social meaning of space
    Difference between how people think about space and "real" (Euclidean) space
  25. Some places seem "closer"
    • Easier to get to, similar
    • These are expected to have more linguistic sharing
  26. Some places seem 'further"
    • Physical, social, linguistic boundaries causing isolation
    • It seems different, we see their inhabitants ants different from "us"
  27. "Distinct" areas and dialect are
    • Named
    • Attributed particular characteristics
    • Often inhabitants are socially distinct
    • An area (and its dialect) can become perceived as distinct-Enregisterment
  28. Enregisterment
    Linguistics formed become linked with social meaning
  29. When do particular dialects become important or noticed?
    • When the region needs/wants to mark itself off
    • -Distinct from neighboring and immigrant dialects
    • -Fear of losing identity
    • When people migrate from on region to another
    • -Southern to Northern US
    • -Differences are noted
    • -Migrants are often poor/stigmatized
    • -Migrant neighborhoods-chinatowns
  30. Dialect leveling
    • Dialects in contact
    • Distinctive features disappear
  31. Supra-local features
    Speakers of small dialects adopt features from the nearest large city
  32. "Dying" dialects
    • Often talked about, but they're really just changing
    • -Some features die out without the dialect leveling with others
    • Sometimes local features make a comeback
    • 1855 people thought the telegraph and steam engine would wipe out dialects entirely
  33. Rhotic
    A term used to describe English dialects where the /r/ following a vowel is pronounced. Also known as r-ful
  34. Lexical set
    A way of identifying vowels using a set of words where they occur as opposed to a linguistic symbol
  35. Monophthongs
    A pure vowel sound, spoken in a single place of articulation, with no change in quality, for example bat as a opposed to bite
  36. Canadian Raising
    A phonological process found in Canadian English (and some other varieties) where the MOUTH and PRICE vowels are pronounced differently when preceding a voiceless consonant in the same syllable, in words like hike and stout
  37. Shibboleth
    When the pronunciation of a single word becomes a stereotype of a speech community, such as Jamaicans saying mon instead of man
  38. After perfect
    A grammatical means of describing a (usually recent) completed event in Irish (and consequently Newfoundland) English
  39. Reified
    Made into a concrete thing
  40. Covert prestige
    A norm or target that speakers unconsciously orient to, with a sort of hidden positive evaluation that speakers give to other (presumably non-standard) forms. The linguistic equivalent of street cred
  41. Crossing
    When speakers use language features or linguistic styles associated with another ethnic group
  42. Dialectology
    The study of regional differences in language
  43. NORMS
    An acronym for "Non-Mobile Older Rural Males" These speakers are believed to have retained the most traditional speech and are consequently the focus of many dialectology studies
  44. Isogloss
    An imaginary boundary or line drawn on a map that separates particular ling features, like the line across England separating northerners who pronounce STRUT and FOOT vowels roughly the same from southerners who dont
  45. Isogloss bundle
    Many isoglosses occurring in the same area, likely representing a major dialect boundary
Card Set:
3 Ling 204
2015-10-01 20:17:32
Linguistics socioslingustics

Third class
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