3 Ling 204

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  1. Dialect leveling
    The process by which the regional features of the speech of a group of people converges toward a common norm over time
  2. Rhotic
    A term used to describe English dialects where the /r/ following a vowel is pronounced. Also known as r-ful
  3. Lexical set
    A way of IDing vowels using a set of words where they occur as opposed to a linguistic symbol
  4. Monophthongs
    A pure vowel sound, spoken in a single place of articulation with no change in quality ex. Bat as opposed to bite
  5. Canadian Raising
    A phonological process found in Canadian English (and some other varieties) where the MOUTH and PRICE vowels are pronounced differently when preceding a voiceless consonant in the same syllable, in words like hike and stout
  6. Physical isolation
    A dialect or Lang can be physically or geographically isolated from others, ex being on an island
  7. Linguistic isolation
    When speakers of a dialect or Lang are cut off from other varieties and have retained older features so that their variety has developed differently from their sisters
  8. Social isolation
    A dialect or Lang can be socially isolated by convention or attitudes, ex by class or race prejudice
  9. Shibboleth
    When the pronunciation of a single word becomes a stereotype of a speech community ex Jamaicans say mon instead of man
  10. After perfect
    A grammatical means of describing a (usually recent) completed even in Irish and Newfoundland English
  11. Reified
    Made into a concrete thing
  12. Enregisterment
    A process through which a linguistic feature or repertoire becomes a socially recognized register
  13. Covert prestige
    A norm or target that speakers unconsciously orient to, with a sort of hidden positive evaluation that speakers give to other (presumably non-standard) forms. The linguistic equivalent of street cred
  14. Supralocal
    A term used to refer to the level "above the local" in which speakers adopt the language feature of the nearest large city
  15. Crossing
    When speakers use language features or linguistic styles associated with another ethnic group
  16. Dialectology
    The study of regional differences in language
  17. NORMS
    "Non-mobile Older Rural Males" who are believed to have retained the most traditional speech and are therefore the focus of many dialectology studies
  18. Isogloss
    An imaginary boundary or line drawn on a map that separates particular linguistic features, ex the line across England separating Northerners who pronounce STRUT like FOOT and the southerners who don't
  19. Isogloss bundle
    Many isoglosses occurring in the same area, likely representing a major dialect boundary
  20. Regional differences are something everyone acknowledge because
    There are differences even at the level of formal language
  21. There regional differences even in formal languages because of
    • Different places/people established them
    • Barriers to interaction isolate
    • Different varieties are in contact with other langs/varieties
  22. Rough timeline of English
    • 450 AD diff parts of England settled/conquered by different Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons, Mutes)
    • 800-1000 North influenced by Norse invaders
    • 1066 onward French influence (esp. Upper class)
    • Later London/Oxford/Cambridge become the prestige dialect, variably influences others
  23. Spread of English
    • Mostly post 1500s exploration/colonization
    • Ireland: Normans, then upper classes through land confiscation
    • Scotland: very distinct local variety, maybe moves closer to England English once they share royalty
    • Newfoundland and Caribbean: settled largely from SW England, SE Ireland
  24. North American mainland
    • East Anglia
    • Southern England
    • Northern England, N Ireland
    • US midland, New England
    • Dialects spread west, boundaries blur
  25. East Anglia
    New England
  26. Southern England
    US coastal south, midland
  27. Northern England, N. Ireland
  28. US midland, New England
    Central Canada
  29. Southern varieties of English
    • Australia, New Zealand, South Africa were largely setter form southern England (Cockney)
    • Differences developed due to separation
  30. Circles of English
    • Associated with Bram Kachru although not everyone finds the distinctions useful
    • Inner circle
    • Outer circle
    • Expanding circle
  31. Inner circle of English
    Where English is the official language/ the most common first language
  32. Outer circle of English
    Former colonies of UK or US where English plays a big role but is not the first language of most
  33. Expanding circle
    English plays a role often as a foreign or a shared language
  34. Regional English differences
    • Pronunciation differences: especially vowels
    • Occasional grammatical differences: I have just eaten vs I just ate
    • Many lexical differences: word choices
  35. Isolation can be
    Physical, linguistic or social. All of which result in retention of traditional language features
  36. Other factors may reinforce isolation
    • Limited access to education and media
    • Limited immigration-nobody bringing in innovations from their home community
  37. Social meaning of space
    There's a difference between how people think about space and "real" (Euclidean) space. Some places seem closer just because they are easier to get to
  38. "Close" places are
    Similar, easier to get to and expected to have more linguistic sharing
  39. "Far" places are
    • Physically, socially or linguistically separated from a persons point of view
    • Different, they vs us
  40. Distinct areas and dialects are
    • Named
    • Attributed certain characteristics
    • Often inhabitants are socially distinct
    • An area (and its dialect)┬áthat can become perceived as distinct
  41. "Dying" dialects
    • Are really just changing. Some local features can make a comeback.
    • 1855 people thought the steam engine and telegraph would wipe out dialects
Card Set:
3 Ling 204
2015-10-01 21:22:07
Linguistics sociiolinguistics

Third class and chapter of sociolinguistics
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