1 Psy 101

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ECCammi
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308854
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1 Psy 101
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2015-10-01 18:45:07
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Psycology
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The first chapter of psychology notes
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  1. Psychology
    The scientific study of Mind and behavior
  2. Mind
    The private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories and feelings
  3. Behavior
    Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
  4. Nativism
    The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn
  5. Philosophical empiricism
    The view that all knowledge is acquired through experience
  6. Phrenology
    A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the alacrity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain
  7. Physiology
    The study of biological processes, especially in the human body
  8. Stimulus
    Sensory input from the environment
  9. Reaction time
    The amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus
  10. Consciousness
    A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
  11. Structuralism
    The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind
  12. Introspection
    The subjective observation of one's own experience
  13. Functionalism
    The study of the purpose mental processes in enabling people to adapt to their environment
  14. Natural selection
    Darwin's theory that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations
  15. Hysteria
    A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences
  16. Unconscious
    The part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings and actions
  17. Psychoanalytic theory
    An approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behavior
  18. Psychoanalysis
    A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders
  19. Humanistic psychology
    An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
  20. Behaviorism
    An approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior
  21. Philosophers have pondered and debated ideas about human nature for millennia, but
    Given the nature of their approach they didn't provide empirical evidence to support their claims
  22. Maire Jean Pierre Florets and Paul Boca
    Made some of the earliest successful efforts to develop a science linking mind and behavior  by showing that damage to the brain can result in impairments of behavior and mental functions
  23. Hermann von Helmholtz
    Furthered the science of the mind by developing methods for measuring reaction time
  24. Wilhelm Wundt
    Credited with the founding of psychology as a scientific discipline. His structuralist approach focused on analyzing the basic elements of consciousness
  25. Edward Titchener
    Wilhelm Wundt's student who brought structuralism to the US
  26. William James
    Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection to the study of the mind. His functionalist approach focused on how mental processes serve to enable people to adapt to their environments
  27. G. Stanley Hall
    Established the first American research lab, journal and professional organization devoted to psychology
  28. Patients with psychological disorders
    Have often been focused on by psychologists as a way of understanding human behavior
  29. Jean-Martin Chariot and Pierre Janet were clinicians who studied
    Unusual cases where patients acted like different people while under hypnosis, raising the possibility that each of us has more than one self
  30. Sigmund Freud worked with hysterical patients to
    Develop psychoanalysis which emphasized the importance of unconscious influences and childhood experiences in shaping thoughts, feelings and behaviors
  31. Humanistic psychologists offered a more optimistic view of the human condition, suggesting that
    People are inherently disposed toward growth and can usually reach their full potential with a little help from their friends
  32. Keith Jarrett, a virtuoso piano player has played for 60 years. Compared to a newbie
    The brain regions that control Jarrett's fingers are relatively less active when he plays
  33. Animals freeze of fear so that enemies don't see them because
    Emotions are adaptive
  34. Plato believed that certain kinds of knowledge are innate whereas Aristotle
    Believed that the mind is a blank slate where experiences are written
  35. Descartes' dualism
    The physical body is a container for the non-physical thing called the mind. Most modern scientists reject it and embrace Rule's scientific materialism
  36. Scientific materialism
    Philosopher Gilbert Ryle's argument that there is no "ghost in the machine" and that all mental activity is simply the result of the brain
  37. Franz Joseph Gall developed a theory called
    Phrenology, there are certain sections in the brain that related to psychological capacities, the more capacities and traits the larger the corresponding bumps on the skull. No one really thinks this anymore however there is some truth to it.
  38. Mr. Leborgne was nicknamed Tan because
    He had a lesion in the left hemisphere of his brain making "tan" the only thing he could say. The lesion was discovered by Paul Boca
  39. Helmholtz estimated the length of time it takes a nerve impulse to travel to the brain by
    Testing a person's reaction times to different stimuli.
  40. Wundt founded the first__in order to__
    • Lab devoted exclusively to psychology
    • Understand consciousness by breaking it down into its basic parts, including individual sensations and feelings
  41. Where was the first lab devoted exclusively to psychology?
    It was at the University of Leipzig in Germany.
  42. Robert Fludd
    A physician and artist who tried, (before) like Titchener to identify the elements of conscious experience.
  43. William James suggested that your ability to read emotional expressions in an instant
    Serves as an important function that promotes your survival and well being
  44. G. Stanley Hall believed that as children grew up they
    Retrace the evolutionary history of our species, starting out as "mental cavemen" and ending up as "us"
  45. Margaret Floyd Washburn
    • A student of Edward Titchener at Cornell became the first woman with a PhD in psychology
    • Had a distinguished career, mainly teaching at Vassar College
    • Wrote an influential book, The Animal Mind
  46. What fundamental question has puzzled philosophers for millennia?
    Nature vs. Nurture or Nativism vs. Empiricism
  47. What were early explanations for dualism?
    Descartes suggested that the a tiny structure at the bottom of the brain was used by the mind to influence the brain.
  48. British philosopher Thomas Hobbes argued that
    The mind and body aren't different things at all, the mind is what the brain does
  49. How did work involving patients with brain damage help demonstrate the mind-brain connection?
    Boca used Mr. Leborgne (Tan)'s brain to show that there could be a connection between his loss of speech and a lesion in the left half of his brain.
  50. How did the work of chemists influence early psychology?
    Wundt took the idea of elements in chemistry and tried to break down consciousness into elemental sensations and feelings and created structuralism.
  51. What are the problems with the introspective method?
    It couldn't create replicable results. This made it hard for psychologists to agree on the basic elements of consciousness.
  52. How does functionalist relate to Darwin's theory of natural selection?
    William James reasoned that mental abilities must have evolved because they were adaptive and helped people solve problems thus increasing their chance of survival.
  53. How was Freud influenced by work with hysteric patients?
    It gave him the idea that their trauma came from painful childhood experiences and gave him the idea of the unconscious, psychoanalytic theory and psychoanalysis.
  54. Freud's idea of unconscious
    The part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences the conscious thoughts, feelings and actions.
  55. Psychoanalytic theory
    An approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors.
  56. Why are Freud's ideas less influential today?
    Because after WWII in America the attitude was becoming much more positive. People saw accomplishments of the human mind and not just the problems.
  57. How did behaviorism help psychology advance as a science?
    Because the focus on behavior allowed psychologists to study on animals.

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