2 Psy 101

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2 Psy 101
2015-10-01 23:10:33
Psychology 101

Second class/reading
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  1. Response
    An action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus
  2. Reinforcement
    The consequences of a behavior determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again
  3. Illusions
    Errors of perception, memory or judgment where subjective experience differs from objective reality
  4. Gestalt psychology
    A psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
  5. Cognitive psychology
    The scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory and reasoning
  6. Behavioral neuroscience
    An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
  7. Cognitive neuroscience
    The field of study that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
  8. Evolutionary psychology
    A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive vale of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection
  9. Social psychology
    The study of the causes and consequences of sociality.
  10. Skinner box (conditioning chamber)
    Developed by B.F. Skinners a lever in a box with a rat releases a food pellet. The lever press is learned behavior and the food is the reinforcement that increases the frequency of future lever pressing
  11. What did Skinners learn by observing the behavior of hungry rats?
    The principle of reinforcement which became the foundation for Skinner's new approach to behaviorism.
  12. Which of Skinner's claims provoked an outcry?
    The claim that our subjective sense of free will is an illusion and that when we think we are exercising free well we are actually responding to present and past patterns.
  13. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson studied the
    Association between a stimulus and a response and emphasized the importance of the environment in shaping behavior
  14. Behaviorism advocated the study of
    Observable action and responses and held that inner mental processes were private events that could not be studied scientifically.
  15. B.F. Skinner's box demonstrated that animals and humans
    Repeat behaviors that generate pleasant results and avoid performing those that generate unpleasant results.
  16. Skinner extended Watson's contentions about the importance of the environment in shaping behavior by
    Suggesting that free will is an illusion and that the principle of reinforcement can be used to benefit society
  17. Why might people not see what an experimenter actually showed them?
    • Because of Gestalt psychology, people only see the whole rather than the sum of the parts.
    • In Max Wertheimer's study of illusions two flashing lights became perceived as one when the flashing was sped up.
  18. Jean Piaget studied the perceptual and cognitive errors of children in order to
    Gain insight into the nature and development of the human mind. Children under 6 couldn't tell that two mounds of clay were the same size after pulling one apart.
  19. Hermann Ebbinghaus
    Tried to discover how quickly/well people could memorize and recall meaningless information
  20. Sir Frederic Bartlett didn't like Ebbinghaus's experiments
    He did a similar memory study with information relevant to people and discovered participants remember how things should have gone or what they expected to happen instead of what actually happened.
  21. Kurt Lewin argued that
    People react to the world as they see it and not as the world is.
  22. How did the advent of computers change psychology?
    It was used as a simplistic mind that could not be subjective and spawned a new approach called Cognitive psychology
  23. What did psychologists learn from pilots during WWII?
    They demonstrated how people have a limited capacity to handle incoming information, which can explain many errors pilots (and everyone else) make. The pilots could not attend to all the instruments in the aircraft and had to actively move focus from one to another.
  24. What was Noam Chomsky's critique of Skinner's theory that signaled the end of behaviorism?
    Even young children generate sentences that they have never heard before, therefore they couldn't be learning language by reinforcement.
  25. What have we learned by watching the brain at work?
    That psychologists can use scanning techniques to observe people with various kinds of cognitive capacities and use their observations to unravel the mysteries of the mind and the brain. Called Cognitive neuroscience
  26. Max Wertheimer, Frederic Bartlett, Jean Piaget as well as later pioneers such as Donald Broadbent
    Defied the behaviorist doctrine and studied the inner workings of the mind. These efforts paved the way for cognitive psychology to focus on inner mental processes such as perception, attention, memory and reasoning
  27. Cognitive psychology developed as a field due to
    • The invention of the computer
    • Psychologist's efforts to improve the performance of the military
    • Noam Chomsky's theories about language
  28. Cognitive neuroscience attempts to
    Link the brain with the mind by studying individuals with brain damage (connecting the damaged are with the loss of specific abilities) and individuals without brain damage using brain scanning techniques
  29. Evolutionary psychology focuses on the adaptive function that
    Minds and brains serve and seeks to understand the nature and origin of psychological processes in terms of natural selection.
  30. How did historical events influence the development of social psychology?
    • The rise of Nazism led many German psychologists to America (Solomon Asch and Kurt Lewin) who influenced Gestalt psychology
    • Holocaust brought up problems of conformity and obedience
    • Civil rights movement and rising racial tension led psychologists like Gordon Allport to study stereotyping and prejudice.
  31. How did anthropologists influence psychology in the 1980s?
    It helped cultural psychology emerge
  32. Why are psychological conclusions so often relative to there person place or culture described?
    Because culture can influence a person's psychological structure.
  33. Social psychology recognizes that
    People exist as part of a network of other people and examines how individuals influence and interact with one another.
  34. Cultural psychology is concerned with
    The effects of the broader culture on individuals and with similarities and differences among people in different cultures.
  35. Within the cultural psychology perspective there are two groups
    • Absolutists: believe that culture has little impact on most psychological phenomena
    • Relativists: believe that culture has a powerful effect
  36. Social and cultural psychology
    Examine behavior within the broader context of human interaction and help expand the discipline's horizons beyond just and examination of individuals
  37. Mary Whiton
    First woman elected APA president, suffered from sexism, was refused a PhD at Harvard and still went on to be prominent and teach at Wellesley College
  38. Kenneth B. Clark
    Studied the developmental effects of prejudice, discrimination and segregation on children. He found that black preschoolers preferred white dolls and was cited by the supreme court in Brown v Board of Education. He was black
  39. How has the face of psychology changed as the field has evolved?
    There is less discrimination against women and non-white ethnicities.
  40. In what ways does psychology contribute to society?
    Psychologists work in almost every field to help people figure out how to succeed the best. Such as sports psychologists who help athletes improve their performance
  41. The American Psychological Association (APA)
    • Has grown dramatically since it was formed in 1892.
    • 150,000+ members work in clinical, academic and applied settings
    • Psychologists are also represented by professional organizations such as the Association for Psychological Science (APS) focuses on scientific psychology
  42. Pavlov was not a
    • Psychologist. Mainly he was a physiologist
    • He even fined people for using psychology terms in his lab.
  43. What was Pavlov trying to discover from his work with dogs?
    • The physiology of digestion, which coincidently had a lot to do with psychology (especially reinforced behavior/environmental stimuli)
    • He waited until he had his Nobel prize before he published the psychological side of his dog experiment
  44. N=
    Number of observations
  45. Skinners had the Big N because
    He could make a lot of observations on a lot of rats
  46. Watson said you could do away with
    The soft artsy side of psychology, but he was wrong. He followed behaviorism and thought all psychologists need to do was study environment, behavior and response.
  47. Tolman was strong and smart because he was
    • Willing to confront behaviorism and say there was something wrong
    • Big idea: Cognitive maps in rats and men, making Tolman a father of cognitive psychology
    • He used rats because people are annoying
  48. What do nervous systems do?
    They learn. Reinforces/environmental contingencies speed things up but normally they learn just because that's what the nervous system does.
  49. D.O. Hebb's
    The father of Behavioral Neuroscience, known for Hebb's postulate first proposed in 1940's, not proven until 1960's
  50. Hebb's postulate
    If you fire together you wire together. Cells active at the same time get a stronger connection
  51. Good theories don't have to be right
    They have to be testable
  52. Electrophysiology could
    Test Hebb's postulate as well as a lot of Freud's work
  53. Hebb's Postulate remains
    The best idea on how the cells in the brain change when you learn or memorize something
  54. Five core areas of psychology
    • Behavioral neuroscience
    • Cognitive psychology
    • Developmental psychology
    • Social psychology
    • Clinical/Personality psychology
  55. Behavioral Neuroscience
    • Mana thinks this is best; there's always one brain involved in psychology at least
    • Uses physiological, pharmacologic, surgical, genetic and developmental tools to study the neural bases of behavior in human and non-human animals
  56. Cognitive psychology
    • Study of mental processes like attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving and thinking.
    • Requires no knowledge of the brain
    • Emerged around the same time as Neruoscience
  57. Developmental psychology
    • The study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their lives. Originally concerned with infants and children, but it's expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging and the entire lifespan
    • Goes against the fact that psychology was once involved with education
    • Last 20~ years they've looked at older people
  58. Social psychology
    Focuses on the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior, of how people's thoughts, feelings and behavior are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others
  59. Clinical psychology
    Deals with individual's psychological conflicts, crises and life difficulties
  60. Personality psychology
    Involves studies of the personality's structure, function and development, and also the importance of personality towards overall adjustment and good health