Pulmonary assessment/Terminology NUR106
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Rhonchi are often a low-pitched moan that is more prominent on exhalation. low and dull-caused by blockages to the main airways by mucous, lesions, or foreign bodies-Pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and cystic fibrosis are patient populations that commonly present with rhonchi
Found in lower airways such as alveoli. Found with atelectasis which is a collapse of the alveoli. Two types Fine and Course crackles. This is due to fluid in the alveoli typically-commonly found in patients with RDS, CHF, Pulmonary edema and asthma
High pitched sound almost musical. broncial constriction is a cause of this. Found in patients with asthma, chronic bronchitis and other types of COPD.
high-pitched, musical sound that is heard over the upper airway (seal barking cough). usually caused by foreign body obstruction of the larger airways, such as the trachea or a main bronchus, and requires immediate attention. heard also in children with croup-infection of epiglottis the flap which protects airway.
pleural friction rub is caused by the inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleurae. A sign you will see if the patient will splint their chest and resist breathing deeply. can also be indicative of fractured ribs. Pericardial rub and a pleural rub will often sound similar, and the best way to distinguish between the two is to make the patient hold their breath. If you still hear the rubbing sound, then the patient has a pericardial rub and requires different treatment. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax are two diagnoses that can cause a pleural friction rub.
Bifurcation of the trachea
Bony ridge over the manubrium. AKA-Angle of louis-is continuous with the 2nd rib and is the landmark for bifurcation of trachea. auscultation of breath sounds will be bronchial vesicular.
Anterioposterior (AP) diameter?
AP diameter of the chest should be half the distance of the transverse diameter.
abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing.
is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), but also kidney failure.
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