With the edema cycle, primary astrocytic insult leads to ________ edema and _____________; this causes ___________ and low ________; loss of __________ results in ___________ injury and __________ edema.
binding hydrophobic protein residues to prevent irreversible aggregation, mediate protein-refolding, mediate protein import into mitochondria, control enzymes, promote glucose uptake
Neurons with __________ of HSP are most at risk for diverse insults.
low basal and/or inducible levels
Glutamate excitotoxicity leads to...
enhances expression of selective neuronal necrosis.
___________ is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.
The excitation signal in an excitable brain cell is terminated by....
active removal of glutamate from the synpatic cleft by astrocytes.
With glutamate toxicity, excessive glutamate release occurs secondary to ____________, causing degeneration and necrosis of __________; ___________ can further predispose neurons to injury since glutamate uptake by astrocytes is _____________.
Mechanism of excitotoxicity: NMDA receptors become refractory to the modulatory effects of ________ with prolonged ____________, resulting in excess ________ entry into the post-synaptic neuron; the high intracellular _______ activates enzymes that destroy the ___________ of the cell.
Resolution of pannecrosis consists of _________ mediating the clean-up, becoming laden with ___________, and ultimately forming a ___________. Astrocytes form a _________; the cavity becomes filled with _________.