Medieval History Midterm

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Medieval History Midterm
2015-10-05 21:39:30

early to mid medieval period
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  1. Diocletian
    • emperor from late 200s
    • 284-301
    • divided the roman empire into a new form of gov org called tetrarchy
    • resulted in civil war
    • attempted to reform empire in other ways such as decree of max prices
    • last main state prosecutor of christians

    after he died 4 ->2 provinces
  2. Jerome
    • early 400s
    • catholic priest, doctor of church
    • one of the Cappadocian fathers
    • created the Vulgate Latin translation of the bible
    • dream where he was accused of <3 Cicero+
    • Struggled to reconcile Christianity w/ classical culture - aided preservation of classical culture
  3. Benedict of Nursia
    • italian monk early 500s
    • father of the benedictine monastery/western monasticism
    • moderation/practicality
    • order of monastic day, purpose of community
    • provided directory for the gov & spiritual/material well-being of a monastery
    • preserved classical latin lit, edu
  4. Justinian I
    • mid 500s
    • collected/revised roman laws
    • Corpus Juris Civillis bult on Theodosian Code
    • ->foundation for most of euro law
    • established state control of the Church (Ceasaropapism)
    • aggressive building campaign
    • sought to reconquer lost territory in w
    • paved way for emergence of Byzantine empire
  5. al-Andalus
    • Muslim spain
    • Umayyad dynasty 600-700s (661-750)
    • cultural exchange b/w christians, jews
    • maj edu center
    • sig advancements in science, math, medicine
    • translated/protected elements of classical world
  6. Clovis
    • Late 400s (466-511)
    • founder of the Merovingian dynasty
    • he ruled through cooperation w/ local lords and added courts
    • converted to Christianity on battlefield and responsible for mass conversion of his armies
    • unified relg among what would be fr/gr ppl
  7. Gregory of Tours
    • late 500s (538-595)
    • wrote history of the Franks*and hist of merovingian dynasty
    • wrote on miracles of lives of saints
    • promoted organized devotion
  8. Donation of Constantine
    • 8th c
    • a forged Roman imperial decree by which the emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. 
    • support of claims of political authority by the papacy
    • pope vs. Byzantine emipire
    • close relationship of carolingians and papacy
    • set stage for later church/state struggles
    • pope = ruler in secular relm
  9. Pepin III (the short)
    • cooperated w/ pope to displace last Merovingian king
    • king of Carolingian dynasty (franks) 8th c
    • (751-768)
    • close relationship with papacy, set stage for later struggles,
    • Donation of constantine
    • aided pope against lombards in Italy
  10. missi dominici
    • admin change during reign of Charlemagne (turn of 9th century)
    • clergyman and layman each had an area: capitularies 
    • joins relg and secular authority
    • missus performed important intermediary functions b/w royal & local administrations.

    • 4 reasons why missi effective as instruments of the centralized monarchy:
    • the personal character of the missus,
    • yearly change,
    • isolation from local interests
    • & free choice of the king
  11. Alcuin of York
    • late 700s (735-804)
    • English religious scholar/poet
    • Carolingian court under Charlemagne 
    • most important architects of the Carolingian Renaissance
    • copied important texts, handwriting
    • introduced the traditions of Anglo-Saxon humanism into western Europe.
    • introduced the methods of English learning into the Frankish schools
    • revision of the liturgy of the Frankish church (influence in the devel of Rom Cath. in w euro)
  12. Carolingian miniscule
    • calligraphy script that standardized euro latin writing to facilitate readability among the literate class.
    • punctuation
    • upper case/lower case letters
  13. Louis the Pious
    • Turn of the 9th c (778-840)
    • not as effective as daddy C
    • ruler of Carolingian empire, King of Aquitaine (781), King of the Franks, co-Emperor w/ his father Charlemagne, of HRE (813).
    • defended sw frontier from muslims/invaders
    • defended christianity
    • Tresaty of Verdun 855 would divide L the P's kingdom among his feuding sons, weakening the  empire.
    • decentralization continues...
  14. Lechfeld
    • battle (955)
    • part of hungarian invasion of euro
    • deceive victory for Otto I
    • contained hungarian invasions of w euro
  15. Theophano
    • byzantine empress
    • 10th c
    • served as regent during minority of sons
    • promoted culture/scholasticism
  16. Augustine of Hippo
    • 300s-400s (354-430)
    • dr. of church
    • wrote City of God in aftermath of sack of city of rome
    • emanation of history and society
    • wrote to: understand collapse of rome, relationship of church/state, Christianity/euro, and gov/society
    • argues that there are 2 cities, Jerusalem and Babylon that are bound together and are inseparable
    • med culture, classical, roman c trad blended
    • shockingly influenced by Manichaeism (neoplato)
  17. Augustine of Canterbury
    • early 600s
    • sent by Gregory in 597 to convert eng to christ
    • converted eng king Ethlebert
    • founder of eng church
    • king gave him land to found a monastery outside city walls.
    • A went on to become a bishop.
    • Wrote St. Augustine gospels.
    • eng kingdom very loyal to papacy
  18. Synod of Whitby
    • called by Oswy 664
    • decided which form of christ would be official in Northumbria and by extension all of eng.
    • oswy declared himself king of eng.
    • +org, +churches
    • apostolic succession
  19. Bede the Venerable
    • late 600s
    • 673-735
    • became intellectual leader of euro.
    • conveyed trad wisdom to +ppl
    • eclisiastical hist of eng ppl
    • during his lifetime he provide historical account of eng
  20. Wessex
    • early 800s
    • west saxons expanded w word and by 802 encompassed all of eng south of themes river and west of sussux and kent
    • sys of shires established. 
    • King Alfred of wessex, scholar, protected from vikings.
    • paid danes to leave wessex. last eng holdout
  21. Alfred the Great
    • scholar/patron of learning, catholic
    • king of wessex late 800s (871-899)
    • protected from vikings,
    • paid danes to leave
    • dominant ruler of eng
  22. Vassal
    • entered into mutual obligation to lord
    • feudal oath, fiefs' pieces of property
    • problem: v's owed loyalty to immediate overlord, not king
    • socio-pol arrangement
  23. Manor
    • econ basis of feudal society
    • unit of land in feudal lordship
    • worked by serfs/peasant laborers owned by landlords
    • decentralization of w euro
  24. Communes
    ppl living together sharing property/interests