Why do we not often diagnose and treat peracute adrenocortical insufficiency?
very high mortality- patients (usually young animals) die quickly
What are causes of peracute adrenocortical insufficiency (Waterhouse-Fredrickson Syndrome)? (4)
diffuse cortical necrosis/hemorrhage (trauma/septicemia), thrombosis of adrenal vessels, toxemia
Chronic hypoadrenocorticism causes loss of _________.
all 3 layers of the cortex
What is the most common cause of chronic hypoadrenocorticism? What are 2 less common causes?
inflammation (adrenalitis); less commonly: necrosis, mineralization of adrenal cortex
Why is the adrenal so sensitive to fungal and protozoal insults?
high levels of glucocorticoids, which are immunosuppressive
Addison's disease is caused by ____________ that is comprised of ___________, causing secondary __(2)__.
idiopathic autoimmune adrenalitis; lymphoplasmacytic inflammation; atrophy and fibrosis
How does autoimmune adrenalitis affect the pituitary gland?
pituitary corticotroph hyperplasia because it is trying to stimulate the adrenal (which isn't functioning)
Patients with Addison's have _______ ACTH and ________ glucocorticoids.
Sub-clinical, age-related change in the adrenal cortex of dogs.
extracoritcal nodular hyperplasia
Sub-clinical, nodular adrenal change with a variable zone of origin.
__________ animals have lower glucocorticoid stimulation because of...
Older; normal degeneration and mineralization of the adrenal cortex that is associated with age.
Degeneration and mineralization of the adrenal cortex with age usually affects the __(2)__.
zona fasiculata and reticularis
Functional adenomas of the adrenal cortex can cause... (2)
hyperadrenocorticism, hyperestrogenism (ferrets)
Carcinomas of the adrenal cortex invade the ________, and ultimately _________.
blood vessels (esp. the vena cava); metastasize
How can you identify a functional tumor of the adrenal cortex on necropsy?
the rest of the cortex/contralateral adrenal is atrophied (trophic atrophy- tumor is secreting all the hormone)
Almost all ferrets are gonadectomized at a young age; this leads to increased levels of _______ and secondarily increased __(2)__; in ferrets, this stimulates the adrenal cortex, and the tumor the develops produces _________.
GnRH; LH and FSH; estrogen
How can you differentiate adrenal cortex hyperplasia from tumors in ferrets?
hyperplasia is bilateral; tumors are unilateral
What are clinical signs of hyperestrogenism in ferrets? (2)
vulvular enlargement, bilaterally symmetrical alopecia of abdomen and rear legs