4 Ling 204

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  1. Categorical
    Categorical rules apply every time that they can apply
  2. Probabilistic
    The opposite of categorical, probabilistic constraints are not absolute but rather tendencies in one direction
  3. Linguistic constraint
    A linguistic factor that governs the use of a particular variant
  4. Social constraint
    A social factor like sex or age that governs the use of a particular variant
  5. Status
    Social positions that society assigns to its members or the differences between social groups, in terms of the prestige associated with them by others
  6. Variable
    The abstract representation of a source of variation, realized by at least two variants, ex gonna and will are variants of the variable future temporal reference
  7. Variant
    The different expressions or actual realizations of a variable, ex pronouncing the suffix"ing" as "in'"
  8. Prestige
    Variants associated with higher status groups are considered prestige forms
  9. Stigma
    A negative association, something viewed pejoratively
  10. Borrowed prestige
    Speakers' setting and the role they're playing can lead them to use language features associated with a particular class
  11. Aspiration
    People often try to talk like who they want to be
  12. Crossover effect
    In formal situations, speakers using prestige variants even more often than the group above them
  13. Social hypercorrection
    When speakers overdo what they see as linguistic requirements of a situations (usually in the direction of formality or use of standard variants
  14. Linguistic insecurity
    The force hypothesized to drive people to use a variant that is thought to be prestigious or correct and that is not part of their own casual speech
  15. Linguistic market
    The importance of standard language in the social and economic life of the speaker
  16. Salient/salience
    Usually refers to a noticeable variant-one that stand out due to physiological, social and/or psychological factors
  17. Stereotype
    A variable that is socially marked, that is very noticeable and often discussed
  18. Marker
    A variable that speakers are less aware of than a stereotype, but whose use they an control in style shifting
  19. Indicator
    A variable that can show differences by age of social group and is often associated with particular characteristics but is not subject to style shifting
  20. Social mobility
    The ability to move between social classes, often determined by how defined class roles are in a particular culture
  21. Caste
    In societies where mobility is more difficult and linguistic boundaries are more rigid social groups or castes tend to be fixed.
  22. Prescriptive
    An approach to language that is focused on roles of correctness that is, how language should be used. Contrasted with descriptive
  23. Sociolect
    A subset of language used by a particular social groups or class, sometimes called social dialect
  24. Unmarked
    The opposite of marked, that is, a feature that does not get noticed
  25. Overt prestige
    Positive or negative assessments of variants that are in line with the dominant norms associated with sounding "Proper" and that people are aware of, often coinciding with the norms of the media, educational institutions or higher socio-economic status
  26. Covert prestige
    A norm or target that speakers unconsciously orient to, with a. sort of hidden positive evaluation that speakers give to other (presumably non-standard) forms. The linguistic equivalent of street cred.
  27. Basilect
    A term used in Créole studies to refer to the most Créole-like variety.
  28. Particular variants become associated with prestige groups (high social classes) and
    Thus behave in particular ways. Everyone uses more prestige variants in formal situations
  29. Marx and Engel 1848
    • Class=Capitalists vs. proletariats
    • Sociolinguists, class=lifestyles, life chances
  30. Class doesn't mean
    • Income: Drug dealers have low class and high income
    • Sophistication: "You got no class!"
    • Upper-class: although their behaviors are seen as more sophisticated that is just social perception
  31. Two ways of determining class
    • Complex scorecard (Trudgill): Type of home, neighborhood, income, occupational prestige
    • Simpler: Occupational prestige alone
  32. More subtle: Borrowed prestige
    • Our setting and the role we're playing affect how we speak
    • Employees change their language based on prestige
  33. Social aspirations from a language POV
    "We talk like who we want to be" -Chambers 1995
  34. There is a perfect correlation of classes and styles of speaking except
    In the second-highest class who uses even more prestige forms than the highest
  35. Why is there the linguistic crossover effect?
    • Possibly Linguistic insecurity: People trying to move up socially pay attention to what/how they speak
    • Linguistic market effects: Not just class but whether your job requires a lot of standard language
  36. Limited mobility
    • Hard to move up, England 19th century
    • People tried to learn speech features of higher classes
    • Prescriptive language guidebooks/grammars
    • Competitions between authors for strictest rules
  37. Greater mobility
    More exposure to the languages of different classes. If a group gains status their language can too
  38. The Lang of the higher social groups usually becomes the standard Lang of the community (taught in schools, seen/heard in media0
    But nothing about it makes it correct, it's just the attitudes and assumptions of the time
  39. Bernstein suggested that middle class and working class kids used Lang in different ways and therefore thought in different ways
    • Elaborated code: Middle class, more like in schools
    • Restricted code: Working class, not useful for schools
  40. The higher the class
    The smaller the regional differences
Card Set:
4 Ling 204
2015-10-03 20:20:13
linguistics Sociolinguistics

Fourth (Fifth?) Class notes/chapter notes
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