4 Psy 101

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  1. How can we tell if two variables are correlated?
    When variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other
  2. Variable
    A property whose value can vary across individuals or over time
  3. Correlation
    When variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other
  4. Correlation coefficient
    A mathematical measure both the direction and strength of a correlation, which is symbolized by the letter r.
  5. Three kinds of correlations
    • Perfect Positive Correlation
    • Perfect Negative Correlation
    • No Correlation
  6. Perfect positive correlation
    r=1, meaning one variable increases by a fixed amount the value of the second variable also increases by a fixed amount
  7. Perfect negative correlation
    r=-1, Every time the value of one variable increases by a fixed amount the second decreases by a fixed amount
  8. No correlation
    r=0, Every time the value of a variation increases by a fixed amount the value of the second variable neither increases nor decreases systematically
  9. What does it mean for a correlation to be strong?
    It means that r is closer to 1
  10. Natural correlation
    A correlation observed in the world around us
  11. Third variable correlation
    Two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable
  12. Matched samples
    A technique where the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable
  13. Matched pairs
    A technique where each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable
  14. Third variable problem
    The fact that a casual relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the naturally occurring correlation between them because of the ever present possibility of third variable correlation.
  15. Experiment
    A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables
  16. Manipulation
    Changing a variable in order to determine its causal power
  17. 1949 Dr. Benjamin Sandler noticed a correlation between ice cream consumption and polio, he believed sugar made kids susceptible to polio but
    It was really just a third variable, warm weather that caused a spike in both ice cream consumption and the spread of the disease
  18. What are the two main features of an experiment?
    Manipulation and random assignment
  19. Independent variable
    The variable that is manipulated in an experiment
  20. Experimental group
    The group of people who are exposed to a particular manipulation, as compared to the control group in an experiment
  21. Control group
    The group of people who are not exposed to the particular manipulation as compared to the experimental group, in an experiment
  22. Dependent variable
    The variable that is measured in a study
  23. Self selection
    A problem that occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group
  24. What are the three main steps in doing an experiment?
    • Perform a manipulation (independent variable)
    • Measure another variable (dependent variable)
    • See if the manipulation produced changes in the dependent variable
  25. Why can't we allow people to select the condition of the experiment that they participate in?
    Because that causes the groups to be different in many ways. Usually there is a third variable behind a person's choice of group which will influence which group they pick.
  26. Random assignment
    A procedure that lets chance assign people to the experimental or control group
  27. Why is random assignment so useful and important?
    Because it prevents the experimental and control groups from being chosen by a third variable
  28. Internal validity
    An attribute of an experiment that allows it to establish causal relationships
  29. External validity
    An attribute of an experiment where variables have been defined in a normal, typical or realistic way
  30. Population
    A complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
  31. Why isn't external validity important?
    Because psychologists are rarely trying to learn about the real world by creating tiny replicas of it in their labs. They're trying to learn about the real world by using hypothesis derived from theories and externally invalid experiments can work very well
  32. Sample
    A partial collection of people drawn from a population
  33. Case method
    A procedure for gathering scientific information by studying a single individual
  34. Random sampling
    A technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
  35. What is the difference between a sample and a population
    A sample is a part of a population.
  36. If random sampling is good why isn't it necessary?
    • Sometimes the similarities of a population doesn't matter
    • When the ability to generalize and experimental result is important psychologists perform new experiments that use the same procedures but on different samples
    • Sometimes the similarity of the sample and the population is simple a reasonable starting assumption.
  37. Sir Francis Bacon
    Developed the scientific method
  38. How do our beliefs shape the way we think about evidence?
    People hold different kinds of evidence to different standards. Often people will see what they want to see.
  39. Cromwell's rule
    Be less sure than you are no matter how sure you are
  40. Why is it important to consider unseen evidence?
    Because it can cause you to draw incorrect conclusions. The first step in critical think is to doubt what you do see and the second step is to consider what you don't
  41. To determine if two variables are related they must be measured many times and then the patterns of variation must be compared. If the patterns covary then
    THey are correlated. Correlations allow us to predict the value of one variable from knowledge of the value of the other.
  42. The direction and strength of a correlation are
    Measured by the correlation coefficient (r)
  43. Even when we observe a correlation between two variables we can't conclude that they are causally related because
    There are an infinite number of third variables that might be causing them both
  44. Experiments solve the third variable problem by
    Manipulating an independent variable, randomly assigning participants to the experimental and control groups that this manipulation creates and measuring a dependent variable.
  45. If inferential statistics show that if random assignment failed then
    The results would only happen 5% of the time
  46. An internally valid experiment establishes a causal relationship between variables as they were
    Operationally defined and among the participants whom they included.
  47. Thinking critically about evidence is difficult because
    People have a natural tendency to see what they expect to see, to see what they want to see, and to consider what they see but not what they don't.
  48. What are three feature of ethical research?
    • Research should show respect for persons and their right to make decisions for and about themselves without coercion
    • Research should be beneficent, which means that it should attempt to maximize benefits and reduce risks to the participant
    • Research should be just, meaning it should distribute benefits and risks equally to participants without prejudice towards particular individuals/groups
  49. Informed consent
    A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail.
  50. What steps do psychologists take to protect nonhuman subjects?
    • Procedures involving animal testing are supervised by psychologists trained in research/care for them
    • Psychologists must make a reasonable effort to minimize the discomfort, infection, illness and pain of animals
    • Psychologists may use a procedure that subjects an animal to pain/stress/privation only when there's no other option and when it is justified
    • Psychologists must perform all surgical procedures under appropriate anesthesia
  51. Debriefing
    A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study
  52. What are psychologists expected to do when they report the results of their research?
    • Report the truth on what they did and found
    • Share credit where it's due
    • Share their data
  53. Institutional review boards ensure
    That the rights of humans in scientific research are based on the principles of respect for persons, beneficence and justice
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4 Psy 101
2015-10-10 18:11:34

Third class/ reading notes
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