Bio midterm

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Bio midterm
2015-10-05 15:21:37
Bio 122 bryne
Includes topics on Evolution Phlyogenetics Systematics Archaea and Bacteria eukarya - Protista Non-Vascular and Seedless vascular plants Seed plants - evolution seed plants - gymnosperms seed plants angiosperms
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  1. Endosymbiont Theory
    The theory that explains how proto-eukaryotes obtained mitochondria and chloroplasts by engulfing ancestral prokaryotes. The symbiotic relationship between the mitochondria and chloroplasts lead to eukaryotes through endosymbiosis.
  2. Evidence of Endosymbiosis in mitochondria and chloroplasts
    • Mitochondria share similar traits to bacteria, such as having circular DNA and containing circular DNA and replicating via binary fission
    • Chloroplasts share similar characterisitics to photocyanobacteria
  3. List from eldest to the most recent 5 biggest mass extinctions
    Oh Dear Please Take Care

    • Ordovician: destruction of 50% animals. Trilobites
    • Deconian: 30% of animal families. Fishes and trilobites
    • Permian: 60% animal families including marin insects, amphibians, and trilobites
    • Triassic: 35% animals. Most of dinosaurs
    • Cretaceous: Last of the dinosaurs. 50% of animal families
  4. What are Darwin's four postulates for the evolution of natural selection
    • variation in populations
    • variation is heritable
    • more offspring are born than survive
    • those who survive are best suited to their environment
  5. What are some factors that lead to speciation?
    • geographic isolation (allopatric and sympatric)
    • Reproductive isolation
    • gene flow
    • genetic drift
  6. What is allopatric speciation
    where the population in species are physically isolated from one another by by geographic barries
  7. sympatric speciation
    speciation as a result of competing resources. Organisms must then find their own NICHES. The driving factor is resource partitioning.
  8. What was Caroleus Linnaeus's contribution to the theory of evolution?
    • He developed the hierarchical system of taxonomy based on their morphological features.
    • The use of binomial nomenclature is still used today Genus species

  9. Taxonomy of Plants
    (K, P, C, O, F )
    • Kingdom = -ia, -a, -ae
    • phlyum (division) = -yta, -phyta
    • Class = -opsida
    • Order= - ales
    • Family = -aceae, -osae
  10. What are the key differences between archaea and bacteria (cell walls, growth rep, and habitat)
    • Cell wall: Archaea and bacteria differ in cell wall composition with archaea containing psuedopeptidoglycan and bacteria containing peptidoglycan. 
    • Growth & reprod: archaea reproduce and grow only through binary fission whereas bacteria may reproduce thorugh binary fission and spores
    • Archaea and bacteria also differ in RNA with most archaea having a closing relations hip to eukarya
    • Habitat: archaea may live in extreme environments these are known as "extremophiles" whereas bacteria live ubiquitously (everywhere)
  11. what is the difference between Eukarya and eukaryota
    Eukarya is referring to the domain of organisms that contain membrane bounded nucleus whereas eukaryota is the informal term for eukaryotic cells
  12. Describe the difference between the flagella of eukaryotes and prokarya
    • eukaryotic flagella are made out of bundles of microtubules covered by the cell membrane. They are merely an extension of the cell surface
    • prokaryotic flagella is composed of globular protein filaments that are attached to the cell surface
  13. describe the shape of vibrio bacteria and give an example
    • partial spirals that is a transition from spirals to coils
    • cholera
  14. what is another name for rod shaped bacteria
  15. when you are referring to Kingdoms, they usually end in
    • -ia
    • -ae
    • -a
  16. when referring to Phylums (division of plants) usually end in
    • -yta
    • -phyta
  17. when referring to Class, usually end in (only for plants)
  18. When referring to Family of plants, usually ending in
    • -aceae
    • -osae
  19. Describe how pathogenic bacteria release pathogens
    • pathogenic bacteria fall under two categories depending on where they secrete poisons (exotoxins and endotoxins)
    • exotoxins: when bacteria secretes protein based poisons
    • endotoxins: when bacteria release liposaccharides from the outer membrane which target cell walls and rbeaks them down. Usually are gram negative bacteria
  20. What are apicomplexons?
    • are a type of obligate parasitic eukaryote that infect through specialized cells called sporozoites which contain a complex of organelles that penetrate the cell wall and tissue of its host
  21. what is this type of protist? and describe the traits that make this unique to other protists
    • amoebozoa
    • contians pseudopodias which are extensions that from the cell surface that aids in anchoring
  22. The kingdom alveolata contains which two organisms and describe their unique characteristic
    all alveolata contain membrane bound sacs

    • The three most prominant alveolata are:
    • dinoflagellates
    • apicomplexoms
    • diatoms
  23. What organism produces this ride tide; name the phylum and name
  24. Describe the characteristics of these organisms
    • Dinoflagelletes contain cellulose plates and are usually adrift on water surfaces.
    • They are responsible for producing red tide bloons
  25. identify this organism and describe
    • diatoms
    • unicellular algae
    • made out of silicon dioxide matrix. Becuase of their strong structure, they can withstand extreme pressures
    • they are highly diverse and decompose on the sea floor
  26. ID this organism
    The Euglenozoa are a large group of flagellate protozoa. They include a variety of common free-living species, as well as a few important parasites, some of which infect humans. There are two main subgroups, the euglenids and kinetoplastids
  27. ID this organism
    Rhodophytes (AKA red algae)

    • red pigment due to phycoerythrin that is higher in concentration than chlorophyll
    • multicellular
    • dependent on water currents to fertilize gametes
  28. ID this organism
    a family of green algae
  29. ID this organism
    • Charophyta
    • a family of green algae that most closely resembles land plants
  30. ID this organism
    • Phaephyta (a brown algae)
    • contains analogous plant body like structures called a thallus which serves as an anchor as well as the site of photosynthesis
  31. ID this organism (family and class) and give an example
    • Alveolata, Cilipohora
    • ex) paramecium
    • The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.
  32. ID this organism
    Chrysophyta (golden algae)
  33. Describe the characteristics of pyrrophyta
    • Pyrrophyta are photosynthetic species, however, whereas others are not. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes and the photosynthetic species have golden-brown or yellowish-green chloroplasts. They can synthesize both types of chlorophyll , type a and type c, and contain high levels of carotenoids (yellow pigments). Some Pyrrophyta, such as Gymnodium and Gonyaulax are dinoflagellates responsible for red tides and secrete neurotoxins that cause massive fish death.
    • Dinoflagelletes fall under this family
  34. what criterias are met to be considered alive
    • reproduce and grow
    • responds to its environment
    • requires energy
    • most have mobility
    • maintain homeostasis
  35. what do all cells share
    • dna
    • ribosomes
    • cell membrane
  36. what is the difference between expected variable and observed variable
    the expected number of anticipated
  37. dwhat is the null hypothesis?
    by taking thie
  38. what ancient organism was involved in changin
  39. what ancient organisms was involved in increasing the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere
  40. why would the amount of oxygen in the ocean affect the oxygen in the atmosphere
    the upper layers of the
  41. what are the advantages of eularyotes versus prokaryotes
    euksryotes contain chloroplasts rather than chlorophylls .ethey are much more efficient in metabolising snd ir able to live in diverseenvironments
  42. what is the significance of the cambrian explosion
    during rhe cambrianexplosion there qas a mass diversificstion of organissm by the chsnge in cephalizarion . rgganisms during the pre camnrian era whad radisl symmetry whearas post csmbrian organisms had nilareral symmetrry

    radial symmetry is less efficenrt than bilateral symmetry
  43. whar organism contributes to evidence of the pre cambrian era