Zoonotic2- TB Brucella Salmonella

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Mawad
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308957
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Zoonotic2- TB Brucella Salmonella
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2015-10-27 20:36:23
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vetmed zoonotic
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vetmed zoonotic
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  1. Characteristics of mycobacterium bovis. (2)
    slow-growing, acid-fast
  2. Disease characteristics of mycobacterium. (3)
    long incubation period, long-term infection, granulomatous inflammation
  3. 3 manifestions of mycobacterial diseases.
    lung lesions, leprosy skin lesions, Johne's intestinal lesions
  4. Is tuberculosis a common or rare disease globally?
    COMMON- 1/3 of the worlds population is infected
  5. Majority of TB cases are __________, which has ___________ transmission.
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis; person-to-person
  6. What is the zoonotic form of TB, and what is the reservoir?
    Mycobacterium bovis; cattle
  7. Describe the clinical manifestation of M. bovis in humans.
    indistinguishable from M. tuberculosis clinically
  8. What are the forms of TB in humans? (2)
    active disease- infectious, clinical signs present; latent disease- no clinical signs, not infectious
  9. What are clinical signs of TB in humans? (4)
    anorexia, fatigue, chronic cough, coughing up blood
  10. What is the incubation period of TB in humans?
    3 weeks- several years
  11. Spread of TB in humans depends upon...
    immune function- spreads to lymph nodes
  12. What antibiotics are some strains of mycobacterium resistant to?
    isoniazid (MDR-TB,XDR-TB), rifampicin(MDR-TB,XDR-TB), floroquinolones (XDR-TB)
  13. Routes of transmission of TB b/w humans. (3)
    inhalation (MAIN ROUTE), ingestion, abraded skin
  14. Routes of transmission of zoonotic TB. (2)
    ingestion (unpasteurized milk), close contact with infected animals
  15. Clinical signs of TB in animals. (4)
    chronic illness, respiratory signs, weight loss, decreased production
  16. Describe the TB eradication program in the US.
    mandatory pasteurization of milk, herd depopulation protocols; Surveillance- screening and confirmatory tests in live animals, carcass inspections, histopath on all lymph node lesions, trace-backs to herd of origin
  17. What state was certified TB free then had a resurgence of the disease in white tailed deer?
    michigan
  18. Describe the Brucella organisms. (3)
    intracellular, gram-negative, host preference
  19. What 3 Brucella species cause more frequent disease in humans and have the potential to be bioweapons?
    abortus, melitensis, suis
  20. Signs of Brucellosis in humans. (5)
    fever, malaise, joint swelling, spontaneous abortion, orchitis/epididymitis
  21. Signs of Brucellosis in animals. (3)
    abortions, RFM, joint infections (death is rare)
  22. How is Brucella organism shed from animals? (4)
    HIGH CONC in fetal membranes and fluids, also in milk, urine, vaginal d/c
  23. Brucella has a _______ infective dose.
    low
  24. Transmission of Brucella. (4)
    direct contact, inhalation, ingestion, accidental injection
  25. How long is the incubation period of Brucellosis?
    long- weeks to months
  26. Describe the Brucellosis Eradication program in the US.
    test beef cattle at slaughter, biannual milk testing of dairy herds in certified free states, vaccination (Bang's vaccine for calves), permanent ID of tattoo and metal ear tag after vaccination
  27. What are the types of disease associated with Salmonella? (3)
    enterocolitis/diarrhea, bacteremia, chronic asymptomatic carriage
  28. What are the most common symptoms of salmonella? (3)
    bloody/mucusy diarrhea, cramps, fever
  29. Describe the pathogenesis of salmonella in humans.
    ingestion--> overcome stomach acidity--> colonization of SI--> influx of neutrophils--> loss of epithelial integrity--> effusion of protein-rich exudate
  30. Transmission of salmonella.
    feco-oral: food contamination, direct contact
  31. Incubation of salmonella.
    6-72hrs
  32. Children shed salmonella ________ than adults after infection.
    longer
  33. How do you treat salmonella in humans? (2)
    fluid therapy, antibiotics (if bacteremia)- most cases are self-limiting
  34. Characteristics of salmonella organisms. (5)
    gram negative, LPS, flagellated (H antigen), rod-shaped, facultative anaerobe
  35. What makes salmonella so successful? (4)
    long-term infection, colonization of lymph nodes, stress-induced recrudescence, long duration of shedding
  36. Salmonella serogroups are based on ________.
    O antigen
  37. Salmonella serovars are based on __________.
    H antigen
  38. Compare typhoidal and non-typhoidal salmonella.
    typhoidal: caused by Salmonella typhi, host specific for humans; non-typhoidal: many serovars, broad host range, zoonotic
  39. Salmonella is usually (95%) transmitted b/w reservoirs and humans through ____________.
    foodborne transmission
  40. What is the primary reservoir for Salmonella infections in people?
    livestock on intensively managed farms
  41. Horizontal transmission of salmonella on livestock farms occurs with _______ [serovars] in __(3)__ [species]; transmission is ________.
    all serovars; cows, pigs, sheep; feco-oral
  42. Vertical transmission of salmonella on livestock farms occurs with _________ [serovar] in ________ [species]; transmission is __________.
    Salmonella enteritidis; poultry; transovarial
  43. _________ animals shed salmonella more frequently and in higher numbers.
    Stressed
  44. There is higher prevalence of salmonella infection on livestocks farms during __(2)__.
    late summer and fall
  45. What are the most common subclinical isolates of salmonella on livestock farms? (3)
    kentucky, montevideo, cerro
  46. What are the most common clinical isolates of salmonella from livestock farms? (2)
    typhimirium and newport
  47. What are measures to prevent within herd transmission of salmonella on farms? (4)
    lower stocking density, prevent fecal contamination of feed, don't spread manure on pastures, house sick cows alone
  48. How do you improve host resistance to salmonella on farms? (3)
    decrease stress, vaccinate, competitive exclusion
  49. Important salmonella serovars on poultry farms. (2)
    typhimurium and enteritidis
  50. What salmonella serovars that affect poultry is there a vaccine for?
    gallinarum an pullorum
  51. Important salmonella serovars on hog farms. (3)
    derby, typhimiurium, infantis
  52. Pigs often have _________ shedding of salmonella, leading to colonization in the _________ period.
    stress-induced; lairage (transport/housing before slaughter)
  53. 3 significant pathogenic salmonella serovars on cattle farms.
    dublin, newport, typhimurium
  54. What is a major challenge of salmonella in the beef industry?
    colonization of lymph nodes
  55. How do we prevent foodborne transmission of salmonella? (3)
    prevent carcass contamination, carcass washes, product pasteurization
  56. What temperature should beef, pork, veal steaks, chops, and roasts be cooked to?
    145 degrees F
  57. What temperature should ground meat be cooked to?
    160 degrees F
  58. What temperature should poultry be cooked to?
    165 degrees F

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