Western Civ I (Week 3b)
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Religion in the Roman Empire – Early Christianity
- The Apostolic Church
- The Sacrments
- “good news”
- regarding their belief in the risen Jesus and the coming Kingdom of God.
PAUL OF TARSUS (d. ca. AD 64)
- aka St. Paul
- brought the Gospel to the “Gentiles” the Roman Empire’s non-Jews.
- 3 missionary trips throughout Greek east with many converts
- originally hated early Christian movement, but had a vision
BAPTISM and The EUCHARIST
- the rite of initiation by immersing a person in water
- represented "cleansing of sin"
- Sacred meal of Bread and Wine
- Represented Body and Blood of Christ
Christians who died as “witnesses” for their faith
- Martyr, slave in Gaul
- Romans had a tough time getting rid of her
The Great Persecution
- happened during Emperpor Diocletians reign
- Christians executed by the state
- Churches Destroyed
- Clergy Imprisioned
- Books confiscated
EMPEROR CONSTANTINE THE GREAT
- became first Christian Roman Emperor
- “Christianization” of Rome
- Persecutions ended
- Battle of the Milivian Bridge
- labarum, early Christian symbol attached to military standards
- Edict of Milan - demanded toleration for Christians
- Balisca of St. Peter
- those who believed the “wrong things” according to Christian orthodoxy
- THE GNOSTICS and the Arians
- believed that creation was bad and had been made by an evil god.
- salvation came through gnosis, “mystical illumination,” or “knowledge,” about the “divine spark
- trapped withi the "prison" of the human body
- Gospels of Thomas, Judas, and Mary
Catholics, believed creation was good and made by the one God
COUNCIL OF NICAEA
- Constantine's appointed council
- Christ was of the same “essence” as God the Father, and Arianism was condemned.
- God exists as “one substance” and “three persons,” namely the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
- Council of Constantinople
- Jerome - Translated Bible into Latin, VULGATE, became the Roman Church’s official Bible
- AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO (354-430), wrote Confessions and The City of God
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