Linguists refer to “general linguistics” as the foundation for interdisciplinary fields
Why are phonetic symbols音標needed?
Types of speech sounds
Language is one of the most important characteristics …; …can be considered as an exception to animal communication because they are like words; Capuchin monkeys, African drongos and topis have been found to …., which is another exception. These animals can…., just like humans
Comparison between animal communication and human language:
Human language has the attribute of “displacement- elaborate
Human language has a multi-level structure of units.- elaborate
Human language is a rule-governed system of communication.- elaborate
Human language has the attribute of productivity- elaborate
Ethology is a study of …; it focus on ….. and view behavior as an ….
Generally speaking, linguists are not interested in…, as prescribed (or stated) by language teachers and style manuals (or style guides) for writing. A prescriptive rule in English is: “…are wrong.” An example is the line “To boldly go where no man has gone before”; Another prescriptive rule is ‘not to use most/more to…’
Language and chess are systems. Do they share any similarities?
Why is human natural language difficult for the computer?
In what sense is bee dancing a language?
Dichotic listening task or technique suggests that the left hemisphere is not superior for processing all sounds [like a cough or a laugh]; it is only better …
Broca’s aphasia VS Wernicke’s aphasia
Content words VS function words
Morphology and lexicology
According to Prof. Gumperz, “….characterize our modern culturally diverse societies” and “the study of….may lead to an explanation for serious communication problems” (p. 172). People in a conversation may not recognize a cue提示 , or may ….based on the same cue. Interethnic miscommunicaitons are …
English spelling defeats its purpose because
Spoken language is an identifying feature of …
Evaluational reactions to a spoken language should likely reflect …For example, …evaluated the …significantly more favorably than the French guises for the following 10 traits: Height, Good looks, Leadership, Intelligence, Self-confidence, Dependability, Ambition, Sociability, Character, and Likability. Another example is that The …accent was rated most favorably for intelligence followed by …
Empirical evidence is needed not only for the sciences, but also for the humanities. Even in the latter, statements should be based on…; The … is an objective quantification of the amount of bias towards a speech
Format for a paper reporting on an experiment
African American English omit the verb ‘…’ whenever contraction is possible; ‘John happy’ and ‘John be happy’ means …. Respectively
No dialect is more expressive, more logical, more complex or more regular than any other language; all language are … and …; to say that one language is superior is a bias with no scientific basis; therefore BBC is now more tolerant to …
Only nine speech sounds in English are voiceless:
7 places of articulation
Sign languages are not rudimentary languages. Evidence:
One of the topics in “conversational analysis” is on“…”