Ecology - Chapter 3
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The number and variety of organisms found in a specific region.
To legally guard from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern.
- A place where there is an exceptionally large number of species in a relatively small area.
- eg. Carolinian Canada in southwestern Ontario.
All the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem.
- A species that is so abundant that it has the biggest biomass of any community member.
- Always primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems.
- A species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem.
- eg. sea otters, prairie dogs, black-footed ferrets.
- The breeding of rare or endangered wildlife in controlled settings to increase the population size.
- eg. black-footed ferrets.
- A species that causes such dramatic changes to landscapes that it creates a new ecosystem.
- eg. a beaver because they create dams that dramatically change the landscapes and create new ecosystems.
- The series of changes in ecosystems that occur over time following a disturbance.
- eg. a succession could be caused by a beaver dam.
- The destruction of habitats, which usually results from human activities.
- Two examples would be deforestation and draining wetlands.
- The practice of clearing forests for logging or other human uses, and never replanting them.
- A species that is accidentally or deliberately introduced to a new location, usually as a result of human activity.
- eg. zebra mussels and round gobies.
- A species that can take over the habitat of native species or invade their bodies.
- eg. zebra mussels.
- The use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted.
- eg. overfishing of Atlantic cod, overhunting of passenger pigeons.
- The death of all of the individuals of a species.
- Two types: background extinction and mass extinction. Background extinction happens slowly and mass extinction is quick.
- The current accelerated rate of extinctions on Earth.
- Currently estimated to be around 100 to 1000 times higher than normal background rate.
The renewal of degraded or destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention.
The regrowth of a forest, either through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down.
- The use of a species to control the population growth or spread of an undesirable species.
- eg. use of bacteria spraying to control tent caterpillars and forest pests.
- The use of living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally.
- eg. use of plants to absorb heavy metals from toxic soils.
- eg. use of bacteria to clean up oil spill on the coast.
- The use of organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils.
- eg. use of clover to add nitrogen to depleted soils.
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