Work psychology Chapter 8

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Elli
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308979
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Work psychology Chapter 8
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2015-10-04 13:41:56
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Chapter 8 Group Dynamics and Work Teams
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  1. group dynamics
    Factors governing a group's formation and development, structure, and interrelationships with individuals, other groups, and the organizations within which it exists.
  2. group
    A collection of two or more interacting individuals who maintain stable patterns of relationships, share common goals, and perceive themselves as being a group.
  3. formal groups
    Groups that are created by the organization, intentionally designed to direct its members toward some organizational goal.
  4. command group
    A group created by the connections between individuals who are a formal part of the organization (i.e., those who legitimately can give orders to others).
  5. task group
    A formal organizational group formed around some specific task.
  6. standing committees
    Committees that are permanent, existing over time.
  7. ad hoc committee
    A temporary committee formed for a special purpose.
  8. task force
    See ad hoc committee
  9. informal groups
    Groups that develop naturally among people, without any direction from the organization within which they operate.
  10. interest group
    A group of employees who come together to satisfy a common interest.
  11. friendship groups
    Informal groups that develop because their members are friends, often seeing each other outside of the organization.
  12. five-stage model of group formation
    The conceptualization claiming that groups develop in five stages – forming, storming, norming, performing. and adjourning.
  13. punctuated-equilibrium model
    The conceptualization of group development claiming that groups generally plan their activities during the first half of their time together, and then revise and implement their plans in the second half.
  14. group structure
    The pattern of interrelationships between the individuals constituting a group; the guidelines of group behavior that make group functioning orderly and predictable.
  15. role differentiation
    The tendency for various specialized roles to emerge as groups develop.
  16. Role
    The typical behaviour that characterizes a person in a specific social context.
  17. role incumbent
    A person holding a particular role.
  18. role expectations
    The behaviors expected of someone in a particular role.
  19. role ambiguity
    Confusion arising from not knowing what one is expected to do as the holder of a role.
  20. task-oriented role
    The activities of an individual in a group who, more than anyone else, helps the group reach its goal.
  21. relations-oriented role (socio-emotional role)
    The activities of an individual in a group who is supportive and nurturing of other group members and who helps them feel goal.
  22. self-oriented role
    The activities of an individual in a group who focuses on his or her own good, often at the expense of others.
  23. norms
    Generally agreed-upon informal rules that guide group members' behavior.
  24. prescriptive norms
    Expectations within groups regarding what is supposed to be done.
  25. proscriptive norms
    Expectations within groups regarding behaviours in which members are not supposed to engage.
  26. status
    The relative prestige, social position, or rank given to groups or individuals by others.
  27. formal status
    The prestige one has by virtue of his or her official position in an organization.
  28. status symbols
    Objects reflecting the position of any individual within an organization's hierarchy of power.
  29. informal status
    The prestige accorded individuals with certain characteristics that are not formally recognized by the organization
  30. cohesiveness
    The strength of group members' desires to remain a part of their groups.
  31. social facilitation
    The tendency for the presence of others sometimes to enhance an individual's performance and at other times to impair it.
  32. drive theory of social facilitation
    The theory according to which the presence of others increases arousal, which increases people's tendencies to perform the dominant response. If that response is well learned, performance will improve. But if it is novel, performance will be impaired.
  33. evaluation apprehension
    The fear of being evaluated or judged by another person.
  34. computerized performance monitoring
    The process of using computers to monitor job performance.
  35. additive tasks
    Types of group tasks in which the coordinated efforts of several people are added together to form the group's product.
  36. social loafing
    The tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases.
  37. social impact theory
    The theory that explains social loafing in terms of the diffused responsibility for doing what is expected of each member of a group (see social loafing). The larger the size of a group, the less each member is influenced by the social forces acting on the group.
  38. team
    A group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
  39. cross-training
  40. cross-training
    The practice of training team members in several different areas of expertise so that they are qualified to help their teammates by members performing a variety of tasks required for team success.
  41. shared mental models
    The common understanding that develops between team members regarding how their team operates, including how people are expected to  work together and what each particular person is expected to do at any given time.
  42. work teams
    Teams whose members are concerned primarily with using the organization's resources to effectively create its results.
  43. improvement teams
    Teams whose members are oriented primarily toward the mission of increasing the effectiveness of the processes used by the organization.
  44. semi-autonomous work groups
    Work groups in which employees get to share in the responsibility for decisions with their bosses and are jointly accountable for their work outcomes.
  45. cross-functional teams
    Teams represented by people from different specialty areas within organizations
  46. gain sharing plans
    Compensation plans that reward team members for reaching company-wide performance goals allowing them to share in their company profits.
  47. virtual teams
    Teams that operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries, communicating with each other only through electronic technology.
  48. skill-based pay
    Paying employees not only on the basis of how well they perform but on the breadth of their skills as well.
  49. team building
    Formal efforts directed toward making teams more effective.

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