Work psychology Chapter 9
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Work psychology Chapter 9
Chapter 9 Communication in Organisations
The process by which a person, group, or organization (the sender) transmits some type of information (the message) to another person, group, or organization (the receiver).
The process by which an idea is transformed so that it can be transmitted to, and recognized by, a receiver (e.g., a written or spoken message).
channels of communication
The pathways over which messages are transmitted (e.g., telephone lines, mail, etc.).
The process by which a receiver of messages transforms them back into the sender's ideas.
Knowledge about the impact of messages on receivers
Factors capable of distorting the clarity of messages at any point during the communication process.
Unsolicited commercial e-mail messages.
The transmission of messages using words, either written or spoken
The transmission of messages without the use of words (e.g., by gestures, the use of space).
Forms of communication involving the use of words (e.g., telephone messages, faxes, books, etc.).
Regularly published internal documents, either hard copy or electronic in nature, describing information of interest to employees regarding an array of business and non-business issues affecting them.
A private Web site that can be accessed only by a company's employees.
A document describing to employees basic information about a company; a general reference regarding a company's background, the nature of its business, and its ru1es.
Written documents prepared for the purpose of sharing information about the organization for purposes of soliciting new employees.
media richness theory
A conceptualization specifying that the effectiveness of any verbal medium depends on the extent to which it is appropriate for ambiguity of the message being sent.
Forms of communication that are aided by the use of computer technology (e.g., e-mail, instant messaging).
A pre-recorded message distributed for playback on an MP3 player, such as Apple's iPod (i.e., an iPod broadcast).
Information, usually news, delivered to Web sites on a real-time basis, as events occur.
blogs (Web logs)
Web pages in which people express their personal experiences and feelings; an Internet-based diary.
synchronous communication techniques
Forms of communication in which the parties can send and receive messages at the same time.
video-mediated communication (VMC)
Conferences in which people can hear and see each other using computers.
e-mail (electronic mail)
A system whereby people use personal computer terminals to send and receive messages between one another using the Internet.
The feeling of being overwhelmed by more information than one can process
emoticons (emotional icons)
Symbols typed using characters such as commas, hyphens, and parentheses for purposes of expressing emotions in online communication.
The practice of communicating with another online by typing messages into boxes that pop up on the screen as needed.
The sharing of messages regarding the official work of the organization.
The sharing of messages that are unrelated to the organization's official activities.
The formally prescribed pattern of connections between the various units of an organization reflecting, for example, reporting relationships, formal communication channels.
A diagram showing the formal structure of an organization, indicating who is to communicate with whom.
Formal connections between people indicating who must answer to whom in an organization.
Someone in an organization, a subordinate, who must answer directly to a higher-level individual in that organization.
Communication from people at higher organizational levels to those at lower organizational levels.
The reluctance to transmit bad news, shown either by not transmitting the message at all, or by delegating the task to someone else.
Communication from people at lower organizational levels to those at higher organizational levels.
Communication between individuals at the same organizational level.
The practice of presenting information about the company to broad, external audiences, such as the press.
informal communication network
The informal connections between people; the pathways through which they share informal information.
old boys' network
A gender-segregated informal communication network composed of men with similar backgrounds.
The tendency for people to share informal information with others with whom they come into contact.
An organization's unofficial channels of communication, through which informal information travels.
Information with little basis in fact, often transmitted through informal channels.
Types of rumour that express people's wishes.
Rumors that are based on people's fears and anxieties.
Rumors in which people intentionally say malicious things about someone with the intent of damaging that individual's reputation.
Rumors designed to reduce the degree of ambiguity in a situation by telling a story about something before it happens.
The specialized language used by a particular group (e.g., people within a profession).
A way of differentiating systematically with respect to consistencies and inconsistencies in what people say and what they do.
The conceptualization that describes effective listening as made up of the following six components: hearing, understanding, remembering, interpreting, evaluating, and responding.
The condition in which a unit of an organization becomes overburdened with too much incoming information.
People responsible for controlling the flow of information to others to keep them from becoming overloaded.
Lining up incoming information so it can be managed in an orderly fashion.
Formal mechanisms through which employees can present ideas to their companies.
Telephone lines staffed by corporate personnel ready to answer employees' questions, listen to their comments, and the like.
brown bag meetings
Informal get-togethers over meals in which people discuss what is going on in their companies.
Gatherings of employees with corporate superiors who are more than one level higher than themselves in an organizational hierarchy.
Questionnaires designed to assess how employees feel about their organizations.
Any communicatign that is accurate and honest, and that builds and enhances relationships instead of jeopardizing them.
Language that arouses negative feelings about one’s self_worth.
Language that makes people feel recognized and accepted for who they are.
Statements that keep conversations going by connecting one speaker's remarks to another's.
Statements that are disconnected from a previous statement, tending to bring conversations to a close.