Work psychology Chapter 11

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Work psychology Chapter 11
2015-10-04 15:23:13
Work pry

Chapter 11 Interpersonal Behaviour at Work: Conflict, Cooperation, Trust, and Deviance
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  1. interpersonal behavior
    A variety of behaviors involving the ways in which people work with and against one another.
  2. prosocial behaviour
    The tendency for people to help others on the job, even when they will not personally benefit from assisting.
  3. psychological contract
    A person's beliefs about what is expected of another in a relationship
  4. transactional contract
    A variety of psychological contract in which the parties have a brief and narrowly defined relationship that is primarily economic in focus.
  5. relational contract
    A variety of psychological contract in which the parties have a long-term and widely defined relationship with a vast focus.
  6. balanced contracts
    Psychological contracts that combine the open-ended, long-term features of relational psychological contracts with the well-specified reward-performance contingencies of transactional contracts.
  7. trust
    A person's degree of confidence in the words and actions of another.
  8. calculus-based trust
    A form of trust based on deterrence; whenever people believe that another will behave as promised out of fear of getting punished for doing otherwise.
  9. Identification-based trust
    A form of trust based on accepting the wants and desires of another person.
  10. swift trust
    Trust that occurs as a set of collective perceptions develops among members of temporary groups.
  11. benevolence
    Disposition of people to be considerate and to demonstrate concern and support for others.
  12. organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
    An informal form of behavior in which people go beyond what is formally expected of them to contribute to the well-being of their organization and those in it.
  13. OCB-I
    Acts of organizational citizenship directed at other individuals in the workplace (i.e., helping co-workers in ways that go beyond what is expected).
  14. OCB-O
    Acts of organizational citizenship directed at the organization itself (i.e., helping the company in ways that go beyond what is expected).
  15. core task behavior (CTB)
    Formal behaviors that traditionally are recognized as part of a particular job.
  16. cooperation
    A pattern of behavior in which assistance is mutual and two or more individuals, groups, or organizations work together toward shared goals for their mutual benefit.
  17. competition
    A pattern of behavior in which each person, group, or organization seeks to maximize its own gains at the expense of others.
  18. social dilemmas
    Situations in which each person can increase his or her individual gains by acting in a purely selfish manner, but if others also act selfishly, the outcomes experienced by all are reduced.
  19. mixed motives
    Contexts in which people have reasons both to co-operate and to compete.
  20. reciprocity
    The tendency to treat others as they have treated us.
  21. competitors
    People whose primary motive is doing better than others, beating them in open competition.
  22. individualists
    People who care almost exclusively about maximizing their own gain and don't care whether others do better or worse than themselves.
  23. cooperators
    People who are concerned with maximizing joint outcomes, getting as much as possible for their team.
  24. equalizers
    People who are primarily interested in minimizing the differences between themselves and others.
  25. conflict
    A process in which one party perceives that another party has taken or will take actions that are incompatible with one's own interests.
  26. substantive conflict
    A form of conflict that occurs when people have different viewpoints and opinions with respect to a decision they are making with others.
  27. affective conflict
    A form of conflict resulting when people experience clashes of personality or interpersonal tension, resulting in frustration and anger.
  28. process conflict
    A form of conflict resulting from differences of opinion regarding how work groups are going to operate, such as how various duties and resources will be allocated and with whom various responsibilities will reside.
  29. destructive criticism
    Negative feedback that angers the recipient instead of helping him or her do a better job.
  30. bargaining {negotiation)
    The process by which two or more parties in dispute with one another exchange offers, counteroffers, and concessions in an attempt to find a mutually acceptable agreement.
  31. win-win solutions
    Resolutions to conflicts in which both parties get what they want.
  32. alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
    A set of procedures, such as mediation and arbitration, in which disputing parties work together with a neutral party who helps them settle their disagreements out of court.
  33. meditation
    The process of learning to clear one's mind of external thoughts, often by repeating slowly and rhythmically a single syllable (known as a mantra).
  34. integrative agreement
    A type of solution to a conflict situation in which the parties consider joints benefits that go beyond a simple compromise.
  35. arbitration
    A process in which a third party (known as an arbitrator) has the power to impose, or at least to recommend, the terms of an agreement between two or more conflicting parties.
  36. binding arbitration
    A form of arbitration in which the two sides agree in advance to accept the terms set by the arbitrator, whatever he or she may be.
  37. voluntary arbitration
    A form of arbitration in which the two sides retain the freedom to reject the agreement recommended by an arbitrator.
  38. conventional arbitration
    A form of arbitration in which an arbitrator can offer any package or terms he or she wishes.
  39. final-offer arbitration
    A form of arbitration in which the arbitrator chooses between final offers made by the disputing parties themselves.
  40. deviant organizational behavior
    Actions on the part of employees that intentionally violate the norms of organizations and/or the formal rules of society, resulting in negative consequences.
  41. destructive organizational deviance
    A form of behavior that violates both organizational and societal norms.
  42. constructive organizational deviance
    Actions that deviate from organizational norms but are consistent with societal norms.
  43. whistle-blowing
    The disclosure by employees of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices by employers to people or organizations able to take action.
  44. cyber loafing
    The practice of using a company's e-mail and/or Internet facilities for personal use.
  45. workplace aggression
    Acts of verbal and physical abuse toward others in organizations, ranging from mild to severe.
  46. Incivility
    Demonstrating a lack of regard for others, denying them the respect they are due.
  47. obstructionism
    Attempts to impede another's job performance.
  48. overt aggression
    Acts that are outwardly intended to harm other people or organizations.
  49. abusive supervision
    A pattern of supervision in which a boss engages in sustained displays of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors.
  50. workplace bullying
    The repeated mistreatment of an individual at work in a manner that endangers his or her physical or mental health.
  51. employee theft
    The taking of company property for personal use.