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What is an ion?
An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization.
What is a compound?
Made up of 2 or more atoms.
What are the laws of matter?
- Conservation of mass
- Constant composition
- Multiple proportions
Conservation of mass
Matter is conserved in chemical reactions.
Elements in the universe are made up of the same thing.
Every compound is written as a whole number. It is reduced to the smallest number.
A net positive charge. Goes through reduction. Ion becomes cation. Loses electrons.
A net negative charge. Oxidation occurs. ion becomes an anion. Gains electrons.
Mass number in table of elements
Number of protons and neutrons.
Atomic number in table of elements.
Number of protons. Written as Z.
How to find the number of neutrons?
The mass minus the atomic number.
What are isotopes?
Atoms with a different amount of neutrons than normal. They are unstable and tend to degrade to the original amount.
What are 4 principles that Dalton proposed?
- 1. Each element is composed of atoms
- 2. All atoms of the same element are identical in mass and properties.
- 3. Atoms are not created or destroyed.
- 4. Compounds have the same number of relative atoms.
J.J. Thompson did what?
- Cathode Ray tube experiments. Radiation from cathode (-) to an anode (+) in a tube.
- Determined that cathode rays have mass, subatomic particles in an atom, and matter contains a negative and positive charge.
Millikan did what?
Oil drop experiments that determined that electrons have a charge of -1.60 * 10^-19 power. The mass and charge were obtained.
What did Rutherford do?
- Shot a particles through a gold foil surrounded by a fluorescent screen.
- The existence of an atomic nucleus, nuclear density, positive nucleus charge, and most atomic volume being empty space was determined.
Identify the following on the periodic table.
a. Noble gases
b. alkali metals
c. alkali earth metals
d. Main group elements
e. Transition metals
g. Inner transition Metals
- a. Starts with helium and goes down.
- b. First group, starts with Li and down.
- c. Third group, Be and down.
- d. The two shoulders.
- e. In between shoulders.
- f. Starts with Boron (B) and down right diagonally.
- g. That shit on the bottom.
In the periodic table the groups go up and down. The periods go left and right. From the noble gases what are the charges of the groups?
- To the right +1 and +2.
- To the left -1 and -2.
Avogadro's Number and formula
- 6.022*10^23 Formula units
- 1 mol substance
a. How many moles of atoms are in 4.00g of Carbon-13
b. The amount of atoms?
- a. 4 / 13 = 0.308
- b. (6.022 × 10^23) × 0.308 = 1.85 *10^23
All matter can be divided into pure substances and mixtures. What are the subdivisions of these?
- Pure substances can be divided into elements and compounds.
- Mixtures can be divided into heterogeneous and homogeneous.