Ecology- Chapter 3

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Author:
soveighbrasseur
ID:
309006
Filename:
Ecology- Chapter 3
Updated:
2015-10-04 18:56:55
Tags:
science ecology
Folders:
science ecology
Description:
21 Glossary Terms for Ecology
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  1. Biodiversity
    • the number and variety of organisms found in a specific region
    • each species plays an important role in maintaining sustainable ecosystems. What happens in one ecosystem can affect other ecosystems, so preserving individual species is critical
  2. Protect
    to guard legally from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened or of special concern
  3. Biodiversity Hotspot
    • a place where there is an exceptionally large amount of different species in a relatively small area
    • ex. Carolinian Canada in southwestern Ontario
    • Map of biodiversity hotspot in Ontario:
  4. Community
    • all the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem
    • species depend on interactions, it is important to preserve the biodiversity of communities in order to protect the individual species in that community
  5. Dominant Species
    • species that are so abundant that they have the biggest biomass of any member of the community
    • in terrestrial ecosystems, primary producers are always the dominant species
    • removal of a dominant species can result in a decrease in biodiversity within an ecosystem
    • ex. American chestnut tree, in 1950 the trees were killed by a accidentally introduced fungus and caused 7 species went extinct that used the tree for food
  6. Keystone Species
    • a species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem
    • keystone species are generally not abundant and can be plants or animals
    • ex. sea otters in B.C. eat sea urchins(feed on kelp); during 20th century, sea otter population decreased due to hunting for their fur causing sea urchin population increase and kelp decrease
    • Diagram of otter and kelp population decrease:
  7. Captive Breeding
    • the breeding of a rare or endangered wildlife in controlled settings to increase the population size
    • ex. ferrets at Toronto Zoo in 1992
  8. Ecosystem Engineer
    • a species that causes such dramatic changes to a landscape that it creates a new ecosystem
    • ex. beaver create ponds ad support insects such as  basket-tailed dragonfly
    • Image of beaver supporting dragonfly
  9. Succession
    • the series of changes in an ecosystem that occurs over time, following a disturbance
    • ex. beaver dams flood forests to create pond that becomes a beaver meadow and each stage provides assistance to other species
  10. Habitat Loss
    • the destruction of habitats
    • occurs when events, due to natural disasters or human activities, altar a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem so much that many species can no longer survive there
  11. Deforestation
    • occurs when forests are logged or cleared for human use, and are never replanted
    • Image of deforestation:
  12. Alien Species
    • species introduced to new parts of the biosphere from other regions; may be released on purpose or ,accidentally in shipments of food or other goods
    • ex. zebra mussels: native to Asia were introduced into the Great lakes through ballast water in the 1980's
    • Image of zebra mussels
  13. Invasive Species
    (alien species that become invasive species) species that can take over the habitat of native species
  14. Overexploitation
    • use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted
    • ex. over-fishing of Atlantic cod, overhunting of passenger pigeons
    • Graph of decrease in Atlantic cod
  15. Extinction
    • the death of all the individuals of a species
    • may happen naturally through background extinction, caused by slow changes in the ecosystems that affect species 
    • may happen through mass extinction, which occurs much more quickly
    • may be caused by human activities, such as overexploitaiton
  16. Biodiversity Crisis
    • the current accelerated of rate of extinctions
    • current extinction rate(estimated) is 100 to 1000 times higher than a normal background rate↳many species risk extinction, causing a biodiversity crisis
  17. Restoration Ecology
    • the renewal f degraded or destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention
    • restoration methods include reforestation, wetlands restoration, controlling alien species, bioremediation and bioaugmentation
    • ex. Mud Creek quarry in Toronto used 3 different ponds to filter the polluted water to fix the damage done by Don Valley Brick Works that made bricks and mined rocks from the quarry for nearly 100 years
    • Image of Mud Creek before and after 
  18. Reforestation
    • regrowth of a forest, either through natural processes or through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down
    • ex. 1900's in eastern Canada, red pines were planted in areas that had been subject to clear-cutting for European settlers farms
    • Image of before and after red pines 
  19. Biocontrol
    • the use of a species to control the populaton growth or spread of an undesirable species
    • part of controlling alien species
    • ex. use of a European fly to control the gypsy moth
    • ex. use of bacteria spraying to control tent caterpillars and other forest pets
    • Image of gypsy moth
  20. Bioremediation
    • the use of living organisms to clean uo contaminated areas naturally
    • ex. use of plants to absorb heavy metals from toxic soil 
    • ex. use of bacteria to clean up oil spills on the coast
  21. Bioaugmentation
    • the use of living organisms to add essential nutrients to deplete soils
    • ex. use of clover to add nitrogen to depleted soils
    • Image of clovers

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