MDT 160 Automation

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MDT 160 Automation
2015-10-04 21:24:24
MDT 160 Automation

MDT 160 Automation
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  1. reduction of costs
    expansion of laboratory testing to generate more revenue
    reduction of laboratory errors
    reduction of turnaround time
    improvement of laboratory safety

    all are the goals of?
  2. what are the steps after laboratory receives the specimen ?
    • Front end specimen processing
    • Analysis
    • Result
    • Result transfer
    • Specimen archiving and retrieval
  3. What happens during front end specimen processing includes?
    • Specimen ID
    • Specimen sorted
    • Centrifuged/decapped
    • Aliquot
  4. What happens during analysis step?
    • Proportioning reagent and sample
    • mixing
    • incubation
    • sensing
    • computation
    • readout
  5. what happens during archiving of the specimen?
    • Specimen identification
    • sorting, capping and racking specimens
    • specimens stored in refrigerator stockyard
    • Retrieval of specimens for add-on testing.
  6. 3 phases of automation are?
    • pre analytical
    • analytical
    • post analytical
  7. examples of pre analytical error would be?
    • Tests not ordered
    • Wrong tests ordered
    • Incorrect physician/patient name
    • Incorrect patient ID
  8. Patient Identification (Bedside)
    Patient Preparation
    Specimen Collection
    Specimen Transport (To Lab)
    Specimen Identification (Lab Receiving)
    Sample Processing

    all are examples of what type of operations?
    Pre Analytical
  9. Phlebotomy process can be?
    • Manual
    • Automated
  10. Collect supplies, bar-code labels in lab
    Patient ID by direct examination, match labels with patient
    Prepare patient, perform draw in correct order, for all required number of tubes
    Label tubes

    all are examples of what phlebotomy process?
  11. Print bar-codes by patient
    ID by use of bar-coded bracelet with scanner
    Bar-coded labels are printed out for each tube desired by lab, in correct order of draw
    Tubes are labeled immediately before leaving patient; rescanned for tracking
    all are examples of what phlebotomy process?
  12. Order of the draw is? from first to last
    • Yellow culture
    • light blue
    • yellow
    • red/black
    • red
    • green
    • lavender
    • gray
  13. SPS additive is in what tube?
    Yellow culture
  14. Citrate additive is in ____ tube?
    light blue
  15. Yellow tube (not culture) contains what additive?
    Citrate ACD
  16. Red/Black tube contains what additive?
    Gel, serum
  17. Red tube contains what additive?
    No gel, serum
  18. Green tube contains what additive?
  19. Lavender tube contains what additive?
  20. Gray tube contains what additive?
    Sodium Fluoride ( used Glucose)
  21. Front End Sample Processing Systems
    Modular Integrated Systems
    Total Laboratory Automation
    Types of Laboratory Automation
  22. during which step of sampling process samples are samples are sorted, centrifuged, uncapped, and divided into aliquots if tests for more than one workstation have been requested.
    Front-end sample processing
  23. what step of sampling process is usually a manual procedure?
    Front-end sample processing
  24. what step in sample procesing is usually the rate-limiting step in providing rapid and accurate test results
    Front-end sample processing
  25. Manual sample processing is responsible for about____of the turnaround time and for most of the laboratory errors and lost specimens
  26. Functions of automated sample processing include?
    • Separate sample
    • Centrifuge samples
    • De-cap sample if needed.
    • Accepts all sample types; receive samples into LIS
    • Prepare aliquots in bar-coded tubes and place in Instrument-specific racks or Generic racks
    • Distribute all tubes to work areas.
  27. what employs an integrated track system that links all the laboratory’s workstations (front-end processing, instrumentation, and archiving systems) together to create a continuous, comprehensive network that automates almost all the steps involved in clinical laboratory testing ?
    Total Laboratory Automation ( TLA)
  28. TLA systems usually automate ?
    • Chemistry
    • immunochemistry
    • hematology
    • coagulation section
  29. TLA systems are important choices for laboratory automation for larger laboratories because?
    of the potential for substantial cost savings
  30. operations occurring immediately after the analysis of the analyte(s) are?
    Post-Analytic Operations
  31. Results review
    Results validation
    Results posting/distribution
    Specimen storage/recovery

    are all examples of?
    Post-Analytic Operations
  32. post analytical errors include?
    • data entry error
    • oral miscommunication of results
    • error in reporting to downstream printer/fax or EMR
    • Provider fails to retrieve test results
    • Failure to communicate critical values
  33. a test result that is indicative of a potentially life threatening situation that requires immediate attention and clinical intervention is known as
    A critical (panic) value
  34. Most Common Critical Values are?
    • Potassium ( 18%)
    • Hematocrit ( 8%)
    • Hemoglobin ( 7%)
    • Troponin ( 7%)
    • White Blood Cell Count ( 8%)
    • Glucose ( 6%)
    • Calcium ( 5%)
  35. top common critical value is?
    Potassium ( 18%)
  36. a semi-quantitative measure of the levels of icterus, hemolysis, or lipemia that are present in unknown samples are known as?
    Serum Indices
  37. Serum indices are determined by?
    adding a 9% NaCl solution to the sample and measuring the absorbance's
  38. The bichromatic wavelength pairs used for serum index measurement are?
    • 480 nm and 505 nm (range 1)
    • 570 nm and 600 nm (range 2) 
    • 660 nm and 700 nm (range 3)
  39. failure or alert is caused by a discrepancy in patient results is
  40. delta check occurs when?
    difference between a patient’s present laboratory result and their previous result exceeds a predefined limit within a predefined length of time
  41. what can be used to determine delta check limits?
    Reference change value (RCV)
  42. RCV determines delta check limits by?
    • taking into account analytical and biological variation 
    • determines the allowable change in serial measurements
  43. Delta checks can be useful tools for detecting ?
    • sample quality issues,
    • sample misidentification
    • biologically relevant changes in patient status.
  44. possible causes of discrepant results are?
    • Preanalytical error
    • analytical error
    • biological variation
  45. the automated actions performed by a computer system related to the release of test results to the medical record using criteria and logic established, documented, and tested by the medical staff of the laboratory is known as?
  46. reduces lab errors
    Decreases TNT for reporting Stat tests troponin results by 20%
    More testing can be generated without an increase in laboratory personnel
    Provides better service to the clinician and improves patient care

    all of this are?
    benefits of automation