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What are the basic cell structure?
- Nucleus: “brain” of the cell – contains all chromosomes.
- Cytoplasm: interior semi fluid – surrounds special cell structures
- Mitochondria: “power house” of the cell – converts energy use by cell. Important because it has its own genome.
What is genetics?
study of how genes work and how traits are passed on from one generation to the next
What is DNA?
- a double stranded molecule that forms a double helix and contains the genetic code for biological structures.
- AKA blueprint of life
what is the main component of chromosomes?
How many chromosomes do humans have?
23 pairs that make up a total of 46 chromosomes
What are the 4 nitrogen bases that are the key to how DNA works?
"code for the miracle of life"
- Adenine -> thymine
- Guanine --> Cytosine
Genes code for specific _______
ON TEST! get this right!
amino acids make up _______
there are ____ essential amino acids
___ & ___ make up all essential amino acids
____ number of standard amino acids code for all genes that make up the human body
- term used to describe the number of c-somes typical for a species
- We share 70 % of genetic material with a slug
How do somatic cells differ from gametes? What are the processes of cell division that produce both types of cells?
- somatic cells are all the cells in the body aside from reproductive cells
- gametes are sperm and egg reproductive cells produced in the testes and ovaries
What is the importance of gregor Mendel’s work with pea plants
- discovered the fundamental laws of inheritance.
- He concluded that genes come in pairs and are inherited as distinct units, one from each parent
- genes inherited from parents can be dominant or recessive
What are the basic laws that Mendel discovered?
- discovered 3 laws of inheritance:
- principle of segregation
- principle of independent assortmen
- random assortment
How did Mendel’s work add to Darwin’s theory (which did not have a satisfactory explanation for the mechanism of inheritance).
darwin speculated that inheritance was a blending process done by mixing parent characteristics.
four microevolutionary forces?
What is the significance of each one in bringing about changes in populations over time?
- natural selection
- gene flow
- genetic drift
- Not random
- Populations adapt to environment
- Acts on variation present
- exchange of genes between populations
- Overall allele population changes when two separate pop. Combine
- Movement of genes from one pop. To another
- evolutionary changes, or changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors in small populations.
- a result of small population size small segment of pop. From main pop. Has different genetic makeup, isolated long enough will become new species
- Change in genetic makeup of group caused by random phenomena, not genetic selection
- spontaneous change in gene sequence
- only source of new alleles in a population
- occur due to radiation and chemical (environment) influences
- Random Continual and frequent
- Only matter if in gametes
- Only passed on through sex cells Not all harmful (most aren’t)
a change in one of the four DNA bases
3 types of point mutation
- substitution of base
- deletion of base (major problem)
- duplication of base (major prob
What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation
- P2 + 2pq +q2 = 1
- formula used to evaluate whether evolution is occurring in a population
What is the concept of human adaptation and know the details associated with the example of sickle-cell anemia and malaria.
How does the prevalence of the sickle-cell allele in some parts of the world relate to malaria? (refer to both your notes and text for this information) Why do you think the establishment of the heterozygous sickle-cell carrier (AS) in tropical regions a good example of biocultural evolution?
strands of DNA that reside in the nucleus
A DNA sequence that codes for specific function or feature Some genes have a lot of information and some have less
- a genes place on the chromosome (specific spots to locate chromosomes)
- term sometimes used interchangeably with gene
- alternate alleles reside next to each other on a strand of DNA (at the same locus)
- not all genes have the same outcome
James Watson/Francis Crick
- hypothetically discovered DNA in 1953
- won a nobel peace prize for it
- helped discover DNA's famous double helix but didn't get credit for it
- she dhowed her findings to maurice wilkins who then showed it to watson and crick.
“brain” of the cell – contains all chromosomes (DNA & RNA)
- semifluid-gel like substance found within the cell membrane
- nucleus and other structures are found within the cytoplasm
- known as the power house of the cell
- converts energy for use by the cell and can be thought of as the cells engine
what are the 2 types of chromosomes?
- sex chromosomes
- all chromosomes except the sex chromosome
- 22 pairs
- not gender specific
- 2 sex chromosomes in mammals: X & Y (1 pair)
- Females: XX
- Males: XY
we pass on genes via _____
- (somatic cells & sex cells)
make up most tissues/cells of the bodyThey have nothing to do with reproduction
involved in reproduction, produce gametes
- sperm and egg reproductive cells produced in the testes and ovaries
- ova = female
- sperm = male
somatic cells divide by process of ______
cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells
sex cells divide by process of ______
- cells in ovaries and testes divide to make 4 daughter cells
- each only containing half of the original number of chromosomes, which can develop into gametes
2 members of each chrmosome pair
1 member of each chromosome pair
- a cell formed when a sperm and egg cell come together.
- contains the full complement of chromosomes (46 for humans)
- has potential to develop into an entire organism
- genetic differences between a newly separated population and a parent group
- gene pool will be different
- genetic makeup of an individual
- (2 pairs of alleles)
- expressed characteristics of an individual
- (ex. roll or cant roll, blond or black)
having different alleles at the same locus
having the same allele at the same locus
Human Genome Project
- international effort aimed at sequencing and mapping the entire human genome
- was completed in 2003
Response of organisms or pop. to physical, natural, social environment
characteristics controlled by alleles at two or more loci
simple Mendelian traits
characteristics controlled by alleles at one locus
Principle of Independent Assortment
genes on diff chromosomes sort independently
Principle of Segregation
Genes occur in pair of alleles, but only one allele is contained in each gamete
sickle cell anemia
- Genetic blood disorder in tropical Africa
- Mutation in gene responsible for production of hemoglobin (Protein in blood cell that carries oxygen)
- Normal and sickle allele: co-dominant
- As=1/2 sickle cell, ½ normal
- ss= all sickle cell
- Maleria Transmitted by mosquitoes Treatable, but still kills 1.5-3mill/year
often show up in same places As: best in malerial environment Helps protect against malaria (resistant)
when a heterozygote has higher fitness than either homozygote
Keep in mind the topics presented by your classmates – check over the handouts that they distributed. Also, make sure to read the articles that were assigned to the class regarding the first round of presentations. All these readings are posted on Sakai – do your grade a favor and read them!
Don’t forget to review your film guides!