Public Health for Nurses

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Public Health for Nurses
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2015-10-05 05:21:29
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Public Health nursing
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Public Health for Nurses
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  1. Terminology:
    Health
    ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of infirmity’ 
  2. Terminology:
    Wellness
    ‘a positive concept which allows for degrees, e.g.  I feel better than I did last month. The opposite to being ill.’
  3. Terminology:
    Public Health
    • 1) The collective measures which a community takes to prevent disease. Usually conducted by the federal government, state governments and local authorities.
    • 2) The efforts organised by society to protect, promote and restore the public's health..The programs, services and institutions involved emphasise the prevention of disease and the health needs of the population as a whole. Public health activities change with changing technology and values, but the goals remain the same: to reduce the amount of disease, premature death and disability.
  4. Role of Public Health Worker
    • - Improve social conditions that stimulate health
    • - Prevent social conditions that threaten health
    • - Neutralise existing social conditions that cause ill health
  5. Primary Feature of Public Health
    • -Population focus
    • - Community orientation
    • - Health Promotion
    • - Disease prevention emphasis
    • - Population - level concern and interventions
  6. Terminology:
    Health Promotion
    • 1) Health promotion today suggests choices rather than dictates what should be done or changed
    • 2) Promoting the health of a community extends individual health education and health
  7. Terminology:
    Health Education
    • Any planned educational intervention aimed at the voluntary actions people can take to look after their health or the health of others
  8. Terminology:
    Health Literacy
    The application of literacy skills to health and health care.. the degree to which individuals have the capacity to find, access ad understand health information and health services
  9. What is the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
    • Developed at the 1986 International Conference on Health Promotion held in Ottawa, Canada
    • Used the term 'new' public health for the first time and set out the fundamental conditions for health as: peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. 
  10. What are the 5 main strategies from Ottawa Charter for Health Promtion
    • 1. Build healthy public policy
    • 2. Create supportive environments
    • 3. Strengthen community action
    • 4. Develop Personal skills
    • 5. Reorient health services
  11. What are the 12 qualities of a health community?
    • - Clean and safe environment
    • - Peace, equity and social justice
    • - Adequate access to food, water, shelter, income, safety, work and recreation for all
    • - Adequate access to health services
    • - Opportunities for learning and skill development 
    • - Strong, mutually supportive relationships and networks
    • - Workplaces that are supportive of individual and family well being
    • - Wide participation of residents in decision making
    • - Strong local cultural and spiritual heritage
    • - Diverse and vital economy
    • - Protection of the natural environment
    • - Responsible use of resources to ensure long term sustainablity
  12. Objectives from week 4: How did Australian public health develop?
    From 1890 to 1950 there was a stead increase in life expectancies of both men and women and a decline in mortality from common infectious disease. Immunisation, better food, purer water supply, disposal of sewerage, hygiene education, antibiotics and improved surgical techniques occurred.


    Between 1950 and 1970 there was a consolidation of previous gains. Plateauing of improvements to life expectancy and extended immunisation programs. Lifestyle disease surpassed infectious disease as causes of death and illness, and are still not yet well identified. 

    From 1970 to present. Attempts to reduce incidence of lifestyle diseases through health education. Many advances in medical technology. The term 'health promotion' is used to include strategies including health education. The term 'new public health' came into favour to include both individual behavioural change and socio-environmental strategies. smaller gains in life expectancy, and emphasis on quality of life gained. Increased interest in genetic causes of ill-health


  13. Objectives from week 4: what factors contributed to the nature of he developments?
    Circulatory Disease: deaths declined by almost 48% between 1968 and 1988 as a result of improved diet, decline in smoking levels and improved treatments following heart attacks.

    Road trauma deaths decline by 43% between 1970 and 1988 as a result of seat belt and safety helmet legislation, speed control and restrictions on drink driving.

    Infectious diseases (except for AIDS) deaths declined by 66% between 1960 and 1988 as a result of Surveilance, immunisation, screeninig, isolation, antibiotics and education. 

    Cancer of respiratory tract and chronic bronchitis among males: deaths declined by 18% between 1975 and 1988 as a result of a decline in smoking by men.

    Dental health: decline in dental caries among Sydney children by over 60% between 1963 ad 1982 as a result of access to dental services, improved oral hygiene and dentistry, fluoridation of water, fluoride toothpastes.
  14. Objectives from week 4: What factors contributed to the nature of these developments?
    Circulatory Disease: deaths declined by almost 48% between 1968 and 1988 as a result of improved diet, decline in smoking levels and improved treatments following heart attacks.

    Road trauma deaths decline by 43% between 1970 and 1988 as a result of seat belt and safety helmet legislation, speed control and restrictions on drink driving.

    Infectious diseases (except for AIDS) deaths declined by 66% between 1960 and 1988 as a result of Surveilance, immunisation, screeninig, isolation, antibiotics and education. 

    Cancer of respiratory tract and chronic bronchitis among males: deaths declined by 18% between 1975 and 1988 as a result of a decline in smoking by men.

    Dental health: decline in dental caries among Sydney children by over 60% between 1963 ad 1982 as a result of access to dental services, improved oral hygiene and dentistry, fluoridation of water, fluoride toothpastes.
  15. Objectives from week 4: Describe the major themes and strategies of the old public health
  16. Objectives from week 4: How does the history of public health assist our understanding of contemporary public health?
    The history of public health assists our understanding of contemporary public health through reorientation of health systems towards health rather than illness. By looking at history and researches, new and more effective measure to achieve this are adopted.  
  17. Objectives from week 5: Explain basic epidemiological concepts.
    Populations: why do some people get the flu but not others. Numerator = number of cases, denominator = population number.

    Proportion - type of ratio where denominator includes numerator.

    Rate - measures frequency of health event at or over a certain time

    Risk - probability that an event will occur within a specified period

    Incident rate - measures rate of development of new cases in a population (considers health people likely to get infected, not already infected people)

    Incidence proportion - the cumulative incidence rate- reflects the cumulative effect of the incidence rate over the time period.

    Prevalence proportion - measure of existing disease in a population at any particular time

    Attack rate - proportion of people exposed to an agent and who go on to get the disease.

    Mortality rates - Calculations that describe number of deaths in specific populations (infant mortality rate)


  18. Objectives from week 5: Describe an applied approach to epidemiology in community.
    • Analytic epidemiology:
    • Health outcomes are considered as how did the disease state occur and why did it occur?

    This approach considers the disease in terms of the determinants of health events, or factors, exposures, characteristics, behaviours and contexts that determine (or influence) the patterns. 

    Determinants may be individual, relational or social, communal or environmental.

    Investigates causes and associations between disease and effects. 

    For example - water borne diseases in populations living in areas where there has been a flood.
  19. Objectives from week 5: Differentiate between descriptive and analytic epidemiology.

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