Work psychology Chapter 12

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Elli
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309035
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Work psychology Chapter 12
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2015-10-05 04:54:02
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Chapter 12 Power: Its Uses and Abuses in Organisations
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  1. power
    The capacity to exert influence over others.
  2. position power
    Power based on one's formal position in an organization.
  3. legitimate power
    The individual power base derived from one's position in an organizational hierarchy; the accepted authority of one's position.
  4. reward power
    The individual power base derived from an individual's capacity to administer valued rewards to others.
  5. coercive power
    The individual power base derived from the capacity to administer punishment to others.
  6. information power
    The extent to which a supervisor has power by virtue of the information available to him or her.
  7. personal power
    The power that one derives because of one's individual qualities or characteristics.
  8. expert power
    The individual power base derived from an individual's recognized superior knowledge, skills or abilities in a certain area.
  9. referent power
    The individual power base derived from the degree to which one is liked and admired by others.
  10. charisma
    An attitude of enthusiasm and optimism that is contagious; an aura of leadership.
  11. counterpower
    The capacity to neutralize another's influence attempts.
  12. straightforwardness
    The tendency for people to behave in ways that are frank, sincere, and candid in their dealings with others.
  13. empowerment
    The passing of responsibility and authority from managers to lower-level employees
  14. empowerment climate
    A relatively enduring atmosphere in the workplace that is supportive of empowerment.
  15. resource-dependency model
    The view that power resides within subunits that are able to control the greatest share of valued organizational resources.
  16. strategic contingencies model
    A view explaining power in terms of a subunit's capacity to control the activities of other subunits. A subunit's power is enhanced when (1) it can reduce the level of uncertainty experienced by other subunits, (2) it occupies a central position in the organization, and (3) its activities are nonsubstitutable.
  17. uncertainty
    Lack of knowledge about the likelihood of certain events occurring in the future.
  18. centrality
    The degree to which an organizational unit has a key impact on others because it has to be consulted and because its activities have immediate effects on an organization.
  19. non-substitutable
    The degree to which an organizational unit is the only one that can perform its particular duties.
  20. sexual harassment
    Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment, unreasonably interferes with an  individual’s work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.
  21. quid pro quo sexual harassment
    A form of sexual harassment in which the harasser requires sexual favours in exchange for some tangible conditions, privileges, or terms of employment from a victim.
  22. hostile environment sexual harassment
    A form of sexual harassment in which individuals are subjected to negative, unwanted, or abusive conditions under which their ability to work effectively and comfortably is compromised.
  23. organizational politics
    Unauthorized uses of power that enhance or protect one's own or one’s groups personal interests.
  24. scapegoat
    Someone who is made to take the blame for someone else's failure or wrongdoing.
  25. ingratiation
    The practice of cultivating someone’s favor by agreeing with that individual.
  26. social chameleons
    Individuals who do whatever it takes to get others to like them.

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