A rhetorical term for the repetition of the last word or phrase of one line or clause to begin the next.
Note that a chiasmus includes anadiplosis, but not every anadiplosis reverses itself in the manner of a chiasmus.
Use of certain words or phrases to raise the audience's expectation of particular grammatical constructions; repetition of a word or phrase in successive clauses
Juxtaposing contrasting terms or grammatical units for rhetorical effect
A noun used to describe another noun
Two or more words/phrases/clauses without conjunctions/connectors
Reversal of word order in corresponding pairs (A B B A) e.g. PA l8-9
When the orator presents his case
Introduction of speech to win approval of jury
Elaboration of a theme previously introduced e.g. 351ff
Two elements, usually nouns joined by a conjunction, where actually a single modified noun is called for e.g. 'good and ready', for 'fully ready'
Separation of a noun and its modifier; the suspension of any word syntactically necessary to complete a clause
Layering of subordinate clauses - one starting within another
Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale” has an example of hypotaxis in the second stanza: “O, for a draught of vintage! That hath been/ Cool’d a long age in the deep-delved earth, /Tasting of Flora and the country green” (1.11-13). The “draught of vintage” is modified by the clauses in the successive lines.
Reversal of the natural order of ideas .e.g. PA l331-2
Affirmation of somehting by the denial of its opposite e.g. 'not a few'
Presentation of the facts of the case
Device of anticipating an opponent's objection and refuting it
Symmetrical arrangement of related words, phrases, clauses e.g. PA l132-5
Arrangement of sentences into coordinate clauses without subordination e.g. PA l207-11
Suspension of the crucial word for completing the sentence until the end
Closing argument of a speech
Polyptoton /ˌpɒlɨpˈtoʊtɒn/ is the stylistic scheme in which words derived from the same root are repeated (such as "strong" and "strength"). A related stylistic device is antanaclasis, in which the same word is repeated, but each time with a different sense.
In inflected languages polyptoton is the same word being repeated but appearing each time in a different case. (for example, "Iuppiter," "Iovis," "Iovi," "Iovem," "Iove" [in Latin being the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative forms of Iuppiter, respectively]).
Using a word in the clause preceding the one in which it belongs. E.g. PA l1-2
Rebuttal to opposition's case
The use of the name of a part to refer to the whole .e.g PA l145-7
3 part constructions!
Any deviation from expectation to avoid predictable symmetry/repetition e.g. PA 49-51
Where a single verb governs two or more objects .e.g PA l63