An individual within a group or an organization who wields the most influence over others
The process whereby one individual influences other group members toward the attainment of defined group or organizational goals.
great person theory
The view that leaders possess special traits that set them apart from others, and that these traits are responsible for their assuming positions of power and authority.
The desire to influence others, especially toward the attainment of shared goals.
personalized power motivation
The desire to dominate others.
socialized power motivation
Leaders 'interest in cooperating with others, developing networks and coalitions, and generally working with subordinates rather than trying to control them.
Highly moral individuals who are confident, hopeful, optimistic, and resilient, and who are highly aware of the contexts in which they operate.
multiple domains of intelligence
Intelligence as measured in several different ways, such as cognitive intelligence (traditional measures of the ability to integrate and interpret information), emotional intelligence (the ability to be sensitive to one's own and others' emotions), and cultural intelligence (awareness of cultural differences between people).
The degree to which one is sensitive to the cultural differences between people.
People who do things to revitalize and transform organizations or society.
autocratic (leadership style)
A style of leadership in which a leader makes all decisions unilaterally.
delegation (leadership style)
A style of leadership in which a leader allows employees to make their own decisions.
participative leadership style
A style of leadership in which a leader solicits opinions from subordinates before making decisions.
autocratic-delegation continuum model
An approach to leadership recognizing that leaders allow followers to have different degrees of decision-making power, ranging from autocratic, through participative, to delegating.
two-dimensional model of subordinate participation
An approach to leadership that distinguishes between leaders who are directive or permissive toward subordinates, and the extent to which they are participative or autocratic in their decision making.
initiating structure (production centered)
Activities by a leader designed to enhance productivity, having a task-oriented style.
consideration (person centered)
Actions by a leader that demonstrate concern with the welfare of subordinates, having a person-oriented style.
A multistep process designed to cultivate within leaders a concern for people and a concern for production.
leader-member exchange (LMX) model
A theory suggesting that leaders form different relations with various subordinates and that the nature of such dyadic exchanges can exert strong effects on subordinates' performance and satisfaction.
contingency theories of leader effectiveness
Any of several theories that recognize that certain styles of leadership are more effective in some situations than others.
LPC contingency theory
A theory suggesting that leader effectiveness is determined both by characteristics of leaders (their LPC scores) and by the 1evel of situational control they are able to exert over subordinates.
Short for "esteem for least preferred coworker"-a personality variable distinguishing between individuals with respect to their concern for people (high LPC) and their concern for production (low LPC).
The practice of matching leaders (based on their LPC scores) to the groups whose situations best match those in which they are expected to be most effective (according to LPC contingency theory).
situational leadership theory
A theory suggesting that the most effective style of leadership-either delegating, participating, selling, or telling-depends on the extent to which followers require guidance and direction, and emotional support.
A theory of leadership suggesting that subordinates will be motivated by a leader-only to the extent they perceive this individual as helping them to attain valued goals.
The practice of systematically training people to expand their capacity to function effectively in leadership roles.
The process of using multiple sources from around an organisation, and outside it to evaluate the work of and individual – often used by leaders to learn what people think about them.
Sessions in which a variety of techniques is used to determine how people behave under various standardized conditions.
A leadership development tool designed to help people make connections to others to whom they can turn for information and problem solving.
A technique of leadership development that involves custom-tailored, one-on-one learning aimed at improving an individual leader's performance
A leadership development technique involving a continuous process of learning and reflection that is supported by colleagues and that emphasizes getting things done.