AD student presentations

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xijunzhu
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309050
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AD student presentations
Updated:
2015-10-06 08:45:13
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neurology
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Exam 1
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  1. why use macrophages and microglia in AD?
    both have been shown to be associated with AB clearance in the brain
  2. drawbacks of IV
    • to other organs
    • risk microvascular entrapment
    • cost
  3. drawbacks of surgery
    • rejection of transplanted cells, inflammation
    • limited repeatability
    • quality of life
  4. what was used to determine purity of differentiated eGFP macrophages?
    flow cytometry
  5. how are histological analysis done
    eGFP macrophage treated APP/PS1 mice brain sections were stained with Iba-1 ab or monoclonal ab
  6. what was used to determine number of GFP cells in total cells?
    qPCR
  7. what is one benefit for INA migration of cells?
    does not dependent brain inflammation and AD pathology
  8. what is most common complaint in AD patients?
    loss of episodic memory
  9. 3xTgAD
    homozygous for there mutant alleles APP, tau and PSEN1
  10. what was the shallow task and deeper task?
    • shallow task: color
    • deeper task: age
  11. physostimine
    reversible cholinesterase inhibitor
  12. 5 choice serial reaction time task
    mouse initiate tril, light stimulus appear after a variable time interval, mouse must touch correct response hole to pass the trial
  13. between control and AD group, what was the number of omissions, latency?
    same
  14. what was stat significant in sean's paper?
    • vigilance (sustain attention for long period of time)
    • difference in accuracy when stimulus shortened to 1 second or less
  15. response latency
    after light glows, how quickly they respond to light
  16. magazine latency
    how long it takes to respond to reward
  17. what did Donepezil increase?
    response accuracy and vigilance
  18. visual impairment?
    no b/c mutated mice responded as accurately during long time intervals of light
  19. motivation?
    no b/c no difference in number of omission
  20. no difference in omissions?
    no rats follow same pattern of attentional impaired with reduced acetylcholine levels
  21. free radical theory of aging
    progressive imbalance between generation of reaction oxygen species and levels of antioxidant defenses
  22. what are the physiology of AD patients according to Kristin?
    • increased lip and protein oxidative damage in lymphocyte mitochondria
    • increased oxidative stress in brain
  23. MAPT
    gene that encodes for microtubule associated protein tau
  24. how were the mice analyzed in Kristin's paper...the effect of voluntary physical exercise on pathology of AD?
    analyzed the cerebral cortical tissue to det. soluble ab40 and ab42 and measure oxidative conditions in brain
  25. what are the results of voluntary exercise
    • increase in LPO and GSSG levels
    • reduced GPX and GR activity to control
    • increased CuZn-SOD to control
  26. redox homeostasis
    maintenance of balance of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant levels
  27. hormetic stress
    beneficial effects of mild stress, may promote changes that induce protective gene expression.
  28. brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
    • BDNF (affects survival and function of neurons in CNS)
    • is reduced in AD patients
    • high levels of BDNF produce anti-depresive effects
  29. sham operation
    operated on mice
  30. BrdU
    • to measure neurogenesis
    • incorporated into new DNA, b/c its a thymidine analog
  31. how can BDNF be measured?
    • by using western blot (antibodies)
    • plasma BDNF measured using ELISA
  32. ELISA
    • enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
    • plate based
    • detect and quantify substances using antibody, antigen interaction
    • enzymes convert to color if antigen is present
  33. stroop test
    word blue is written on red paper
  34. verbal fluency test
    b think of all words with that
  35. step through avoidance task
    • rats in dual compartment box
    • move to second box they were shocked, experiment repeated
  36. why measure TrkB expression?
    tyrosine kinase receptors, BDNF binds to
  37. how did cognitive function improve with aerobic exercise
    • increase in short term memory, increase in latency time (remember being shocked)
    • improves executive function in humans (word generation increase)
  38. what are other effects of aerobic exercise
    BDNF and neurogenesis increased (BDNF control neuron survival)
  39. glucose measured in hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp
    • measures insulin resistance, continuous infusion of insulin while glucose held constant to measure how sensitive tissue is to insulin
    • glucose infusion=glucose uptake
  40. how to assess spatial learning and memory?
    morris water maze test
  41. what factors are correlated with oxidative damage?
    body weight, BPSD (behavioral psychological symptoms of dementia), ab, phosphor-tau
  42. what is affected with cognition
    overall fitness, memory

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